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从心理角度描写人才的精选与淘汰——关于《毁灭》的战争叙事 认领
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作者 曾思艺 《北方工业大学学报》 2021年第1期116-127,共12页
从战争小说发展的角度来看,《毁灭》的独特之处是从心理角度描写人才在战争中的改造和成长,以及人才在战争中被淘汰,而这又主要通过小说中三个重要的人物莫罗兹卡、莱奋生、密契克表现出来。心理角度主要是指小说往往从人物的心理矛盾... 从战争小说发展的角度来看,《毁灭》的独特之处是从心理角度描写人才在战争中的改造和成长,以及人才在战争中被淘汰,而这又主要通过小说中三个重要的人物莫罗兹卡、莱奋生、密契克表现出来。心理角度主要是指小说往往从人物的心理矛盾、心理斗争角度来描写人物,心理描写还具有意识流的特点,并且景物描写与人物性格的发展和心理状态密切相联,寓情于景,甚至情景交融。 展开更多
关键词 法捷耶夫 《毁灭》 心理 人才 战争
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Analysis of Multiple Dimensions of“Another”in In Another Country 认领
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作者 黄甜甜 《海外英语》 2021年第4期234-235,共2页
Hemingway’s In Another Country expresses rich ideological connotation with extremely concise language,and reveals the cruelty of war and the huge trauma caused by war to human body and mind.This paper explores the mu... Hemingway’s In Another Country expresses rich ideological connotation with extremely concise language,and reveals the cruelty of war and the huge trauma caused by war to human body and mind.This paper explores the multiple meanings of“an⁃other”in this short story by analyzing the background,environment,character identity,social relationship and personal concept. 展开更多
关键词 in another world text analysis WAR DETACHED ALIENATION
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战争与暴力:社会演进与马莱斯维奇的理论重构 认领
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作者 田宏杰 《政法论丛》 北大核心 2021年第1期35-46,共12页
当代犯罪学中少有专门以战争和有组织暴力为研究对象的著作,马莱斯维奇的理论研究让战争和有组织暴力研究重回犯罪学乃至社会科学的主流研究视阈。通过回溯被遗忘的19世纪末至20世纪初期传统社会科学的军事主义研究维度,独创性构建"... 当代犯罪学中少有专门以战争和有组织暴力为研究对象的著作,马莱斯维奇的理论研究让战争和有组织暴力研究重回犯罪学乃至社会科学的主流研究视阈。通过回溯被遗忘的19世纪末至20世纪初期传统社会科学的军事主义研究维度,独创性构建"经年累月的强制官僚化"和"离心式的意识形态化"相结合的研究范式,马莱斯维奇分析了现代性和有组织暴力的本体论之间的不协调,同时对战争与民族主义、社会分层、宣传之间的关系进行了全新解读,从而极富创造性地使我们得以洞悉战争、有组织暴力及其现代特别形态—恐怖主义犯罪的生成机理和运行机制,进而知道如何科学应对当代恐怖主义的挑战,最大限度地远离战争与暴力,珍爱并永久守护和平。 展开更多
关键词 战争 有组织暴力 经年累月的强制官僚化 离心式的意识形态化
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Evolution and Human Activity 认领
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作者 Jan-Erik Lane 《哲学研究:英文版》 2021年第2期139-142,共4页
Socio-biology has become popular with Wilson and Dawkins.How to theorize human evolution and selfishness?One must recognize the frequent occurrence of war in human civilization.Hobbes and Spinoza were realist recogniz... Socio-biology has become popular with Wilson and Dawkins.How to theorize human evolution and selfishness?One must recognize the frequent occurrence of war in human civilization.Hobbes and Spinoza were realist recognizing selfishness.Now,mankind faces both climate change and nuclear confrontation.The only remedy is intergovernmental coordination.But it is slow characterized by myopia and opportunism as well as egoism.Tocqueville stated that Napoleon“democratized”war arriving with 10 times as many soldiers as feudal kings,increasing human misery even more.Could human evolution come to an end? 展开更多
关键词 DEVELOPMENT CAPITALISM EMPIRE SELFISHNESS WAR
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The Grass-Roots Governance of the National Government in Tianjin Recovery Area After the Triumph of the Anti-Japanese War 认领
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作者 ZHANG Guopeng 《文化与宗教研究:英文版》 2021年第1期20-31,共12页
The national government wants to penetrate into the grass-roots unit after the triumph of the Anti-Japanese War in the recovery area.Through the reorganization of the Baojia system,the government expects to achieve lo... The national government wants to penetrate into the grass-roots unit after the triumph of the Anti-Japanese War in the recovery area.Through the reorganization of the Baojia system,the government expects to achieve local autonomy and then solve the people’s livelihood issues.The new Baojia system provides a platform for people to achieve their own demands,which presents the vision of civil rights to a certain extent.However,because of the complexity of the postwar social environment,the Baojia system cannot completely represent the will of the people,and finally becomes a militarized organization that was used as a tool to carry out the government decree. 展开更多
关键词 after the triumph of the Anti-Japanese War TIANJIN the grass-roots governance the Baojia system
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乌托邦战争论——莫尔《乌托邦》中的战争观 认领
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作者 张培均 《海南大学学报:人文社会科学版》 2021年第1期11-17,共7页
莫尔的《乌托邦》专辟一节讲述乌托邦人的战争观。乌托邦人表面反战,却不仅有一套自己的正义战争理由,还有一套高度理性的战争行为。对这部分文本的仔细分析表明,这些论述并不严肃;相反,根据沃格林的诊断,莫尔的戏谑背后是文艺复兴时期... 莫尔的《乌托邦》专辟一节讲述乌托邦人的战争观。乌托邦人表面反战,却不仅有一套自己的正义战争理由,还有一套高度理性的战争行为。对这部分文本的仔细分析表明,这些论述并不严肃;相反,根据沃格林的诊断,莫尔的戏谑背后是文艺复兴时期的人文主义智识人共有的那种贪婪狂特质。在当下,更为审慎的做法是重新审视而非一味推崇文艺复兴智识人。 展开更多
关键词 莫尔 《乌托邦》 战争 文艺复兴 智识人
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铁血天国:《乌托邦》的战争逻辑及其历史意涵 认领
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作者 李广益 《海南大学学报:人文社会科学版》 2021年第1期18-25,共8页
《乌托邦》中的乌托邦人好战而善战,不仅通过不拘一格的战争手段捍卫自身的安全,而且造就了一个以近于民族国家的乌托邦为中心的帝国。古典传统、中世纪观念、基督教人文主义以及托马斯·莫尔的现实政治考量在《乌托邦》中纠缠盘曲... 《乌托邦》中的乌托邦人好战而善战,不仅通过不拘一格的战争手段捍卫自身的安全,而且造就了一个以近于民族国家的乌托邦为中心的帝国。古典传统、中世纪观念、基督教人文主义以及托马斯·莫尔的现实政治考量在《乌托邦》中纠缠盘曲,共同塑造了乌托邦人的战争行为。在世界霸权层面效法古罗马的乌托邦实为理想化的民族帝国,因此,莫尔堪称现代民族国家的思想先驱。 展开更多
关键词 莫尔 乌托邦 战争 古罗马 人文主义
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文章速递Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley, the Philippines 认领
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作者 Ryan V.Labana Vimar A.Romero +9 位作者 Analette M.Guinto Alvin N.Caril Kimberly D.Untalan Alejandro Jose C.Reboa Khristine L.Sandoval Kristel Joy S.Cada Gary Antonio C.Lirio Iris Rowena A.Bernardo Lanieleen Jerah Mae Arocha Julieta Z.Dungca 《亚太热带医药杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2021年第3期113-121,共9页
Objective:To identify the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis(STH)among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley,the Philippines,assess their level of awareness on the disease,and determine predisposing fact... Objective:To identify the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis(STH)among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley,the Philippines,assess their level of awareness on the disease,and determine predisposing factors of the disease.Methods:A total of 478 GradesⅢ-Ⅴschool-age children in Pamplona and Sanchez-Mira School Districts in the Cagayan Valley answered the questionnaire assessing their knowledge,attitude,and practices on STH,subjected to anthropometric measurements,and provided faecal samples for parasitologic assessment(direct smear,Kato-Katz,and formol-ether concentration techniques).Results:The participants of the study,with 55.86%females,were 8 to 14 years old.Their nutritional status was assessed‘normal’(84.31%),‘severely wasted’(6.49%),‘wasted’(5.23%),‘overweight’(2.72%),and‘obese’(1.26%).The prevalence of infection with at least 1 STH species was 25.99%in Pamplona and 19.40%in SanchezMira.Overall,the prevalence of heavy intensity was 7.11%for Ascaris lumbricoides and 1.67%for Trichuris trichiura.All hookworm infections had light intensities.The majority of the school-age children had a low score in the KAP test.In knowledge of STH,‘stunted growth as a symptom of infection’was associated with a lower risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection(OR 0.448;95%CI 0.212,0.945;P=0.035)while‘playing with soil as a mode of transmission’was associated with an increased risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection(OR 2.067;95%CI 1.014,4.212;P=0.046).In attitude towards STH,‘I think I have intestinal worm now’was associated with a higher risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection(OR 1.681;95%CI 1.061,2.662;P=0.027).Conclusions:The prevalence rate of Ascaris lumbricoides among the school-age children in the Cagayan Valley shows the need to further intensify intervention in the area to meet the threshold set by the World Health Organization.The identified predictors of infection,which concerns the school-age children’s knowledge and attitude toward STH,can be used in augmenting intervention programs in the future. 展开更多
关键词 Intestinal worms War on worms Infectious disease Neglected tropical diseases
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Progression of intervention-focused research for Gulf War illness 认领
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作者 Jeremy E.Chester Mazhgan Rowneki +1 位作者 William Van Doren Drew A.Helmer 《军事医学研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期104-121,共18页
The Persian Gulf War of 1990 to 1991 involved the deployment of nearly 700,000 American troops to the Middle East.Deployment-related exposures to toxic substances such as pesticides,nerve agents,pyridostigmine bromide... The Persian Gulf War of 1990 to 1991 involved the deployment of nearly 700,000 American troops to the Middle East.Deployment-related exposures to toxic substances such as pesticides,nerve agents,pyridostigmine bromide(PB),smoke from burning oil wells,and petrochemicals may have contributed to medical illness in as many as 250,000 of those American troops.The cluster of chronic symptoms,now referred to as Gulf War Illness(GWI),has been studied by many researchers over the past two decades.Although over$500 million has been spent on GWI research,to date,no cures or condition-specific treatments have been discovered,and the exact pathophysiology remains elusive.Using the 2007 National Institute of Health(NIH)Roadmap for Medical Research model as a reference framework,we reviewed studies of interventions involving GWI patients to assess the progress of treatment-related GWI research.All GWI clinical trial studies reviewed involved investigations of existing interventions that have shown efficacy in other diseases with analogous symptoms.After reviewing the published and ongoing registered clinical trials for cognitivebehavioral therapy,exercise therapy,acupuncture,coenzyme Q10(CoQ10),mifepristone,and carnosine in GWI patients,we identified only four treatments(cognitive-behavioral therapy,exercise therapy,CoQ10,and mifepristone)that have progressed beyond a phase II trial.We conclude that progress in the scientific study of therapies for GWI has not followed the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research model.Establishment of a standard case definition,prioritized GWI research funding for the characterization of the pathophysiology of the condition,and rapid replication and adaptation of early phase,single site clinical trials could substantially advance research progress and treatment discovery for this condition. 展开更多
关键词 Gulf War illness Chronic multisymptom illness Gulf War veterans Gulf War syndrome Persian Gulf War Cognitive-behavioral therapy Exercise therapy Acupuncture Coenzyme Q10 MIFEPRISTONE CARNOSINE Mindfulness-based stress reduction
A Case for the Modifiability of the San Francisco Peace Treaty: Examining the Varying Positions of the U.S. and Britain Over South Korean Participation 认领
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作者 Yi Tae-Jin 《文化与宗教研究:英文版》 2020年第2期75-91,共17页
Through a detailed analysis and documentation of relevant U.S.foreign relations and other official documents of the period around the Korean War,this paper aims to prove that in the early negotiation process of the 19... Through a detailed analysis and documentation of relevant U.S.foreign relations and other official documents of the period around the Korean War,this paper aims to prove that in the early negotiation process of the 1951 San Francisco peace treaty,the United States maintained that South Korea should participate in signing the treaty and that the U.S.changed its position because of the resilient British opposition to South Korean participation,which in turn was motivated strongly by the British concern over its strategic interests in East Asia and its diplomatic relations with the newly communized China.In particular,the Chinese intervention in the Korean War and the communist recapture of Seoul provided the impetus for this shift in the U.S.position that led to the exclusion of South Korea from the treaty.Because the substance of the San Francisco peace treaty was dictated by the exigencies under the Korean War and the Cold War and lacks the“Grotian spirit of international law”underlying the founding of the League of Nations and the United Nations,the San Francisco peace treaty does not contain sufficient merit to be worthy of permanent compliance,which leaves open the possibility of modification in the future. 展开更多
关键词 the San Francisco Peace TREATY the US-Japan security TREATY British OBJECTION to South KOREAN PARTICIPATION COMMUNIST China the KOREAN WAR the Cold WAR the 1905 Protectorate TREATY Grotian spirit of international law
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Indicate the Ways in which‘The Destructors’and‘The Blush’Deal with Cultural and Social Issues Pertinent to the Time in Which They Were Written 认领
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作者 米裕丹 《海外英语》 2020年第13期214-215,225,共3页
The Second World War exerted tremendous influence on British society.The way British people think also changed to different extents.The British society was enveloped in haze and fear,while works revealing the social r... The Second World War exerted tremendous influence on British society.The way British people think also changed to different extents.The British society was enveloped in haze and fear,while works revealing the social reality were produced.Adopt⁃ing critical thinking,this essay compared‘The Destructors’and‘The Blush’to explore how the backgrounds,characters,themes and unexpected factors in respective works are related to cultural and social issues of the post-war time.It also revealed the effects of the Second World War on the society. 展开更多
关键词 Second World War post-war literature British literature cultural issues social issues
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Survival after Sexual Violence and Genocide: Trauma and Healing for Yazidi Women in Northern Iraq 认领
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作者 Annekathryn Goodman Hannah Bergbower +1 位作者 Violette Perrotte Arun Chaudhary 《健康(英文)》 2020年第6期612-628,共17页
Introduction</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></span&g... Introduction</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">In August 2014, the Yazidi community of Sinjar, in the Nineveh Governorate of Northern Iraq, was brutally targeted by the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) for annihilation through murder, torture, and the systematic and premeditated use of rape and sexual slavery of Yazidi women. In 2016, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights concluded that ISIS was committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes against Yazidis. Methods</span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Using current international literature, which includes reviews, qualitative interviews of survivors, and reports from medical and humanitarian actors, this paper explores the short and potentially long-term physical and mental health consequences of the extreme physical and sexual violence and atrocities perpetrated against Yazidi women.</span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:""> </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results</span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">: </span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Yazidi women survivors of kidnapping, sex slavery, and rape experienced significant levels of physical ailments, chronic pain, and mental health conditions. All women reported feelings of guilt, stress, insomnia, and severe flashbacks. The incidence of post-traumatic stress dis 展开更多
关键词 RAPE Rape as a Weapon of War Sexual Violence Sexual Slavery KIDNAPPING ISIS ISIL DAESH Yazidi Genocide
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Behind the Farce of the Meng Wanzhou(&Huawei’s)Ordeal:Maneuvers in a Hegemonic Duel 认领
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作者 James C Hsiung 《美中法律评论:英文版》 2020年第2期56-63,共8页
The detention in Vancouver of Meng Wanzhou during a transit stop as from December 1,2018,raises a wide range of questions,many of a serious legal nature.My paper proposes to tease them out for examination,with a view ... The detention in Vancouver of Meng Wanzhou during a transit stop as from December 1,2018,raises a wide range of questions,many of a serious legal nature.My paper proposes to tease them out for examination,with a view to discovering the ultimate motive behind the U.S.initiative on Meng,placing her and her giant company,Huawei,on public trial as a result. 展开更多
关键词 extradition 5-G products hegemonic duel hacking espionage trade war U.S.structural imbalance tech-tinged Cold War
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西方战争题材影片中的新闻记者影像梳理 认领
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作者 黄书亭 《传媒观察》 2020年第11期68-74,共7页
记者特别是战地记者穿越战火,引发和深化对战争哲学、社会问题和人类命运的思考。爬梳战争史痕,回眸电影印记,考量西方战争影片中的记者图绘和历历影痕,便于加深对新闻、历史、战争和电影艺术的理解。
关键词 记者 战争 西方战争电影 音像 类型
解读《所有我们看不见的光》中的成长主题 认领
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作者 刘钰玮 《宿州教育学院学报》 2020年第6期102-105,共4页
安东尼·多尔的小说《所有我们看不见的光》以二战为背景,述说了身处敌对国家的两个少年玛丽洛尔和维尔纳在战争中艰难求生、命运交织的故事。在解读玛丽洛尔和维尔纳成长历程的基础上,论文分析主人公身边引路人对他们成长所带来的... 安东尼·多尔的小说《所有我们看不见的光》以二战为背景,述说了身处敌对国家的两个少年玛丽洛尔和维尔纳在战争中艰难求生、命运交织的故事。在解读玛丽洛尔和维尔纳成长历程的基础上,论文分析主人公身边引路人对他们成长所带来的影响,着力探讨那些引导他们但却看不见的“光”。 展开更多
关键词 《所有我们看不见的光》 成长 战争
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Swinburne, Africa, and the Lash 认领
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作者 Mark Scroggins 《外国语言与文化(英文)》 2020年第2期11-20,共10页
Algernon Charles Swinburne’s late poems encouraging Britain’s aggression against the Boer States are exercises in imperialist jingoism,and seem at odds with the poet's longstanding Republicanism and advocacy of ... Algernon Charles Swinburne’s late poems encouraging Britain’s aggression against the Boer States are exercises in imperialist jingoism,and seem at odds with the poet's longstanding Republicanism and advocacy of individual rights.A close examination of Swinburne’s notorious involvement in practices of sado-masochist flagellation,however,casts some light on how these poems can be read as congruent with his earlier ideological investments.The rhetoric of his Boer War poems is precisely aligned with his earlier responses to the Bulgarian Crisis of 1876 and the Eyre Affair of 1865;in both of these moments,Swinburne’s political reaction is keyed to his aversion to the use of the lash(by the Russians in the former,by the British colonial Jamaican regime in the latter).While Swinburne was something of a connoiseur of passive flagellation-to the extent that birching becomes sometimes a metaphor for poetry itself-the act of deploying the lash against an unwilling subject(as the Boers did to their African workers)is for him the epitome of tyranny and dehumanization. 展开更多
关键词 Algernon Charles Swinburne Victorian poetry Boer War Literature Flagellation
基于社会网络分析的《左传》战争计量及可视化研究 认领
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作者 范文洁 李忠凯 黄水清 《图书情报工作》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第6期90-99,共10页
[目的/意义]信息技术的发展推动了数字人文在社会人文领域的广泛应用,借助于便捷高效的计算技术从海量的数据资源和非结构化的文本中挖掘出潜在的信息,并以更加直观和清晰的方式呈现给用户。[方法/过程]以《左传》中所描述的战争为研究... [目的/意义]信息技术的发展推动了数字人文在社会人文领域的广泛应用,借助于便捷高效的计算技术从海量的数据资源和非结构化的文本中挖掘出潜在的信息,并以更加直观和清晰的方式呈现给用户。[方法/过程]以《左传》中所描述的战争为研究对象,从已经获取的战争句子中抽取出每一场战争的战略进攻方和战略防守方。从数字人文的视角出发,对使用社会网络分析方法挖掘春秋战争格局变化的可行性进行了探究,在此基础上,将春秋时期的诸侯国根据战争合作与战争对抗关系进行了社群划分,并对社群与核心国家逐一分析与讨论。同时运用html、css和E-Charts三种技术将《左传》中的战争进行动态展示。[结果/结论]提供一种从非结构化的《左传》文本中抽取春秋时期的战争信息的方法,并组织成可量化的数据。证明从战争的角度来展示春秋时期诸侯国之间的邦交关系是可行的,同时也展现了数字人文技术在人文历史领域研究中的可行性与巨大潜能。 展开更多
关键词 《左传》 数字人文 社会网络分析 战争
《浮世画家》的建筑空间与帝国批判 认领
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作者 李玉璞 金晶 《西安建筑科技大学学报:社会科学版》 2020年第2期76-81,共6页
石黑一雄的《浮世画家》涉及杉村明别墅、毛利别墅、酒馆等多个建筑空间,这些空间承载着主人公小野的身份转换、职业追求和人生选择,作者描述了这些空间在战时和战后的变化,也完成了对日本这个战时帝国形象从建构到解构的过程。挖掘文... 石黑一雄的《浮世画家》涉及杉村明别墅、毛利别墅、酒馆等多个建筑空间,这些空间承载着主人公小野的身份转换、职业追求和人生选择,作者描述了这些空间在战时和战后的变化,也完成了对日本这个战时帝国形象从建构到解构的过程。挖掘文中小野的身份地位与生活环境的变化及其职业路径与空间转移背后的隐喻意义,探讨战争给人造成的精神困境,能够帮助我们更加深刻地理解作品主旨意蕴和作家的创作立场。 展开更多
关键词 《浮世画家》 空间 帝国 战争 人性
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Changes in the Foot Binding Culture: The Female Body and Politics in Regions Governed by the Communist Party of China during the Anti-Japanese War 认领
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作者 Jiang Pei Wang Wei Gao Xiang 《中国历史学前沿:英文版》 2020年第3期408-434,共27页
Since 1949,Chinese mainland historians and creators in film and television,novels,and reportage have continued to shape the heroic image of female groups in the base areas of the Communist Party of China(CPC)during th... Since 1949,Chinese mainland historians and creators in film and television,novels,and reportage have continued to shape the heroic image of female groups in the base areas of the Communist Party of China(CPC)during the Anti-Japanese War.They participated in production,women's mobilization,and reconstruction of the rural political order Tike men.55 They pursued the equality between men and women,marked by freedom of marriage,and also participated in regional guerrilla warfare to combat the Japanese puppet army"as men."However,in the remote villages of north China at the end of the Qing dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China,it was not common for women to unbind their feet.In wartime,most women over twenty years of age were forever left with the"three-inch golden lotus"(sancun jinlian)feet.The damage of the war accelerated their acceptance of the CPC's emancipation concepts and policies and presented them with an opportunity to actively implement them.The experience of survival drastically changed traditional aesthetics,ideas,and customs related to women.Physical and psychological changes occurred as a result of the war;women began to go out of their homes to participate in the work of the Women's Salvation Association and the Youth Salvation Association,and a group of women achieved marriage equality between men and women in the form of"divorce her husband"(qi xiu fu).Due to pressure,women carried more physical and mental responsibilities,faced insufficient advocacy for their rights,and the aesthetics and mentality of womanhood underwent change. 展开更多
关键词 foot binding foot unbinding "divorce her husband" rural women north China base area the Anti-Japanese War
The American Civil War and Local Landscape Changes: A Case Study of the Vicksburg Campaign 认领
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作者 KAO Ge 《景观研究:英文版》 2020年第2期111-114,118共5页
In tandem with the offensive and defensive exertions of the Vicksburg Campaign,this study focused on the relationship between the American Civil War and local landscape changes at Vicksburg,before,after,and during the... In tandem with the offensive and defensive exertions of the Vicksburg Campaign,this study focused on the relationship between the American Civil War and local landscape changes at Vicksburg,before,after,and during the war.Additionally,this study took advantage of first hand materials including official archives,soldiers’ diaries,letters,and memoirs,in order to explore specific changes of Vicksburg’s local landscape in long-term historical contexts.Prior to the American Civil War,Vicksburg was a prosperous commercial port located in the lower Mississippi River.During the Vicksburg Campaign,both sides attempted to utilise or modify their local environment to gain an upper hand.Meanwhile,the environment played a fundamental role during the war.After the period of hostilities,the establishment of the military park was a direct intervention in the natural recovery process,which arose from two people’s conception of peace based on national unity. 展开更多
关键词 AMERICAN CIVIL WAR LANDSCAPE Vicksburg CAMPAIGN
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