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Singular Terms for Numbers?
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作者 Robert Schwartzkopff 《复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版》 2019年第3期371-383,共13页
In natural language, number-words can be used in two different syntactic ways: adjectivally, i.e., with the syntactic status of an adjective, as in (1) 4Mars has two moons/ and nominally, i.e., with the syntactic stat... In natural language, number-words can be used in two different syntactic ways: adjectivally, i.e., with the syntactic status of an adjective, as in (1) 4Mars has two moons/ and nominally, i.e., with the syntactic status of a noun phrase, as in (2)‘Two is even.’ This syntactic difference is often taken to correspond to a difference in semantic function: adjectival number-words function as predicables, whereas nominal number-words function as singular terms. The view that nominal number-words function as singular terms is typically supported by appeal to certain tests for singular-termhood, tests that stem from the (neo-)Fregean tradition. In this paper, I argue that these tests do not support the view of nominal number-words as singular terms. 展开更多
关键词 NUMBERS Number-words (neo-)Fregeanism PHILOSOPHY of mathematics SINGULAR TERMS
EDOA: an efficient delay optimization approach for mixed-polarity Reed-Muller logic circuits under the unit delay model
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作者 Zhenxue HE Limin XIAO +7 位作者 Fei GU Li RUAN Zhisheng HUO Mingzhe LI Mingfa ZHU Longbing ZHANG Rui LIU Xiang WANG 《中国计算机科学前沿:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第5期1102-1115,共14页
Delay optimization has recently attracted signif-icant attention. However, few studies have focused on the delay optimization of mixed-polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) logic circuits. In this paper, we propose an efficient... Delay optimization has recently attracted signif-icant attention. However, few studies have focused on the delay optimization of mixed-polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) logic circuits. In this paper, we propose an efficient delay op-timization approach (EDOA) for MPRM logic circuits under the unit delay model, which can derive an optimal MPRM logic circuit with minimum delay. First, the simplest MPRM expression with the fewest number of product terms is ob-tained using a novel Reed-Muller expression simplification approach (RMESA) considering don't-care terms. Second, a minimum delay decomposition approach based on a Huffman tree construction algorithm is utilized on the simplest MPRM expression. Experimental results on MCNC benchmark cir-cuits demonstrate that compared to the Berkeley SIS 1.2 and ABC, the EDOA can significantly reduce delay for most cir-cuits. Furthermore, for a few circuits, while reducing delay, the EDOA incurs an area penalty. 展开更多
关键词 DELAY optimization mixed-polarity Reed-Muller LOGIC CIRCUITS UNIT DELAY model don't-care terms
“一带一路”视阈下非通用语科技术语汉译初探——以乌克兰语为例 预览
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作者 王浩杰 《中国科技术语》 2019年第3期57-60,共4页
新时代下,全方位实施“一带一路”建设,非通用语科技术语翻译不容小觑。文章以乌克兰语为例,试从“一带一路”沿线国家非通用语科技术语生成机制入手,充分利用通用语*作为媒介,对非通用语术语汉译策略进行初步探讨。
关键词 一带一路 非通用语 科技术语 汉译
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How an Exporter Faces the Challenges from the Maker 预览
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作者 Michael Kon Tzu-wen Sung Long-sheng Kung 《现代会计与审计:英文版》 2019年第2期55-68,共14页
Both academic and industrial circles always think that exporters basically have no potentials to compete with their factories(suppliers)on overseas markets.However,this may not be the case.The objective of this paper ... Both academic and industrial circles always think that exporters basically have no potentials to compete with their factories(suppliers)on overseas markets.However,this may not be the case.The objective of this paper is to study whether exporters can compete with factories in the international market and further have more advantages.In order to achieve this goal,this paper uses the research methods of Document Analysis,Qualitative Analysis,and SWOT Analysis to evaluate the collected information and explore the opportunity for exporters to survive.As a result,this paper finds that when a factory wants to deal directly with a foreign importer,the exporter can take some effective measures to face the challenges from the factory.For examples,the exporter may use an exclusive agency contract to prevent the factory from dealing directly with the foreign importer;the exporter can apply some special payment terms to induce close cooperation between the factory and the importer;the exporter can discontinue providing the factory with key parts when the factory has direct deal with the importer. 展开更多
关键词 EXCLUSIVE AGENCY contract PAYMENT terms SWOT
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海洋类论文摘要机辅翻译错误剖析
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作者 孙逸群 《中国科技翻译》 北大核心 2019年第2期31-33,30共4页
本文以海洋类论文英文摘要为例,分析了人工译文和机器译文术语的异同,指出术语机器翻译产生问题的成因多源于海洋学研究的综合性、复杂性及前沿性。鉴此,为使计算机辅助海洋学论文摘要的术语翻译更加规范,达到各个国际检索机构的收录标... 本文以海洋类论文英文摘要为例,分析了人工译文和机器译文术语的异同,指出术语机器翻译产生问题的成因多源于海洋学研究的综合性、复杂性及前沿性。鉴此,为使计算机辅助海洋学论文摘要的术语翻译更加规范,达到各个国际检索机构的收录标准,作者需仔细核查机译的术语是否符合所属学科的概念,是否精确严谨,是否符合目的语的规范。 展开更多
关键词 术语 海洋学 英文摘要 计算机辅助翻译(CAT) 对比分析
基于生态翻译学的叙词表术语翻译研究 预览
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作者 温斌斌 常春 《中华医学图书情报杂志》 CAS 2019年第2期50-54,共5页
叙词表术语翻译对多语种叙词表的编制和词表间的互操作具有重要的应用价值,如何准确快速翻译叙词表术语成为叙词表研究的一个重要方向。借鉴生态翻译学中语言维、文化维及交际维的三维转换原则,假设叙词表术语翻译机制符合生态翻译学的... 叙词表术语翻译对多语种叙词表的编制和词表间的互操作具有重要的应用价值,如何准确快速翻译叙词表术语成为叙词表研究的一个重要方向。借鉴生态翻译学中语言维、文化维及交际维的三维转换原则,假设叙词表术语翻译机制符合生态翻译学的三维转换特点,并通过调研"英文超级科技词表"和《汉语主题词表(工程技术卷)》的术语翻译,发现术语翻译规律与生态翻译学的三维转化原则吻合,验证叙词表术语翻译符合生态翻译学规律。生态翻译学的三维转换原则可以为叙词表术语翻译提供方法论指导和新的翻译思路。 展开更多
关键词 叙词表 生态翻译学 术语 翻译 汉语主题词表
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基于词间关系的叙词表术语翻译 预览
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作者 温斌斌 常春 《中华医学图书情报杂志》 CAS 2019年第5期6-10,共5页
从词间关系角度出发,探讨了叙词表术语翻译的方法。结合实践,分别从等同关系、等级关系及相关关系3种词间关系分析了"英文超级科技词表"中的英文术语翻译为中文的翻译方法,结果显示,利用词间关系进行叙词表术语辅助翻译,能够... 从词间关系角度出发,探讨了叙词表术语翻译的方法。结合实践,分别从等同关系、等级关系及相关关系3种词间关系分析了"英文超级科技词表"中的英文术语翻译为中文的翻译方法,结果显示,利用词间关系进行叙词表术语辅助翻译,能够使术语的翻译更具有专一性和规范性,有利于多语种叙词表的质量控制。 展开更多
关键词 叙词表 术语 术语翻译 等同关系 等级关系 相关关系
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GLOBAL L^∞ SOLUTIONS TO SYSTEM OF ISENTROPIC GAS DYNAMICS IN A DIVERGENT NOZZLE WITH FRICTION 预览
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作者 孙庆有 陆云光 Christian KLINGENBERG 《数学物理学报:B辑英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第5期1213-1218,共6页
In this article, we study the global L^∞ entropy solutions for the Cauchy problem of system of isentropic gas dynamics in a divergent nozzle with a friction. Especially when the adiabatic exponent γ=3, we apply for ... In this article, we study the global L^∞ entropy solutions for the Cauchy problem of system of isentropic gas dynamics in a divergent nozzle with a friction. Especially when the adiabatic exponent γ=3, we apply for the maximum principle to obtain the L^∞ estimates w(ρ^δ,ε, u^δ,ε)≤ B(t) and z(ρ^δ,ε, u^δ,ε)≤ B(t) for the viscosity solutions (ρ^δ,ε, u^δ,ε), where B(t) is a nonnegative bounded function for any finite time t. This work, in the special case γ≥ 3, extends the previous works, which provided the global entropy solutions for the same Cauchy problem with the restriction w(ρ^δ,ε, u^δ,ε)≤ 0 or z(ρ^δ,ε, u^δ,ε)≤ 0. 展开更多
关键词 GLOBAL L^∞ solution ISENTROPIC gas dynamics source terms flux APPROXIMATION compensated COMPACTNESS
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Risk measurement of international oil and gas projects based on the Value at Risk method
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作者 Cheng Cheng Zhen Wang +1 位作者 Ming-Ming Liu Xiao-Hang Ren 《石油科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期199-216,共18页
International oil and gas projects feature high capital-intensity, high risks and contract diversity. Therefore, in order to help decision makers make more reasonable decisions under uncertainty, it is necessary to me... International oil and gas projects feature high capital-intensity, high risks and contract diversity. Therefore, in order to help decision makers make more reasonable decisions under uncertainty, it is necessary to measure the risks of international oil and gas projects. For this purpose, this paper constructs a probabilistic model that is based on the traditional economic evaluation model, and introduces value at risk(VaR) which is a valuable risk measure tool in finance, and applies Va R to measure the risks of royalty contracts, production share contracts and service contracts of an international oil and gas project. Besides, this paper compares the influences of different risk factors on the net present value(NPV) of the project by using the simulation results. The results indicate:(1) risks have great impacts on the project’s NPV, therefore, if risks are overlooked, the decision may be wrong.(2) A simulation method is applied to simulate the stochastic distribution of risk factors in the probabilistic model. Therefore, the probability is related to the project’s NPV, overcoming the inherent limitation of the traditional economic evaluation method.(3) VaR is a straightforward risk measure tool, and can be applied to evaluate the risks of international oil and gas projects. It is helpful for decision making. 展开更多
关键词 RISK measurement Value at RISK INTERNATIONAL oil and gas PROJECTS FISCAL terms - PROBABILISTIC model
Dynamical behaviors of the generalized hematopoiesis model with discontinuous harvesting terms
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作者 Fanchao Kong 《生物数学学报:英文版》 2019年第1期195-231,共37页
This paper is concerned with the generalized hematopoiesis model with discontinuous harvesting terms.Under the framework of Filippov solution,by means of the differential inclusions and the topological degree theory i... This paper is concerned with the generalized hematopoiesis model with discontinuous harvesting terms.Under the framework of Filippov solution,by means of the differential inclusions and the topological degree theory in set-valued analysis,we have established the existence of the bounded positive periodic solutions for the addressed models.After that,based on the nonsmooth analysis theory w让 h Lyapunov-like approach,we employ a novel argument and derive some new criteria on the uniqueness,global exponential stability of the addressed models and convergence of the corresponding autonomous case of the addressed models.Our results extend previous works on hematopoiesis model to the discontinuous harvesting terms and some corresponding results in the literature can be enriched and extended.In addition,typical examples with numerical simulations are given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of obtained results. 展开更多
关键词 Positive periodic solution BOUNDED DISCONTINUOUS HARVESTING TERMS topological degree theory Lyapunov-like approach global EXPONENTIAL stability convergence
公示语外译地方与国家标准的定名及词语译法辨析
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作者 任林静 吕和发 《标准科学》 2019年第9期66-73,共8页
本文归纳总结了公示语外译地方与国家标准名称用语的选取和演进规律;辨析了地方和国家标准用名关键词语“公共场所”与“公共服务领域”,“标识”与“标志”,“翻译”与“译写”,“标准”与“规范”的异同;指出“公示语”这一概念从推... 本文归纳总结了公示语外译地方与国家标准名称用语的选取和演进规律;辨析了地方和国家标准用名关键词语“公共场所”与“公共服务领域”,“标识”与“标志”,“翻译”与“译写”,“标准”与“规范”的异同;指出“公示语”这一概念从推出到广为社会各界接纳是自觉约定俗成的结果,地标、国标定名选词要严格遵循约定俗成法则,进而有效传播与普及标准、规范,精准发挥其在跨文化交流中的指导与制约功用。通过对部分译写原则与词语译法的解析,明确提出公示语汉英译写不应仅拘泥于对原规则、原语原意的“忠实”,更应以跨文化交际有效性为宗旨,精准服务于现实国家发展、语境实况与受众需求。 展开更多
关键词 公示语 翻译 地方与国家标准 定名 词语译法 辨析
“梯度”在中国生态学中的使用考辨 预览
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作者 崔骁勇 杨以宁 《中国科学院大学学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第6期760-765,共6页
科学交流需要清晰的概念。"梯度"一词是中国生态学迅猛发展过程中引入的新概念,其含义与在其他学科中有所不同,导致了使用上的混乱。对该术语的原意、在中国生态学中的引入和误用进行系统分析,剖析造成误用的原因,并提出解决... 科学交流需要清晰的概念。"梯度"一词是中国生态学迅猛发展过程中引入的新概念,其含义与在其他学科中有所不同,导致了使用上的混乱。对该术语的原意、在中国生态学中的引入和误用进行系统分析,剖析造成误用的原因,并提出解决的方案。 展开更多
关键词 术语 梯度 误用 海拔 审定
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建水紫陶标准中名词术语解析 预览
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作者 王剑飞 白雪姣 +2 位作者 王茜 左敬民 何磊 《红河学院学报》 2019年第6期38-40,共3页
建水紫陶标准对紫陶产业发展起到有力的助推作用,随着我国陶瓷类标准的更新,建水紫陶标准中的名称术语也需要进一步的完善和定义。文章从建水紫陶标准中名词术语入手,对建水紫陶标准中关于类别归属、名词术语及感官评价等三个部分的名... 建水紫陶标准对紫陶产业发展起到有力的助推作用,随着我国陶瓷类标准的更新,建水紫陶标准中的名称术语也需要进一步的完善和定义。文章从建水紫陶标准中名词术语入手,对建水紫陶标准中关于类别归属、名词术语及感官评价等三个部分的名词术语进行论述解析,为建水紫陶标准的进一步更新和发展提供了理论分析基础。 展开更多
关键词 建水紫陶 标准 名词术语
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Comparison of the Global Energy Cycle between Chinese Reanalysis Interim and ECMWF Reanalysis
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作者 Bin ZHAO Bo ZHANG +2 位作者 Chunxiang SHI Jingwei LIU Lipeng JIANG 《气象学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第3期563-575,共13页
The global energy cycle is a diagnostic metric widely used to gauge the quality of datasets. In this paper, the "Mixed Space-Time Domain" method for diagnosis of energy cycle is evaluated by using newly deve... The global energy cycle is a diagnostic metric widely used to gauge the quality of datasets. In this paper, the "Mixed Space-Time Domain" method for diagnosis of energy cycle is evaluated by using newly developed datasets-the Chinese Reanalysis Interim (CRAI) and ECMWF Reanalysis version 5 (ERA5), over a 7-yr period (2010-16) on seasonal and monthly timescales. The results show that the energy components calculated from the two reanalysis datasets are highly consistent;however, some components in the global energy integral from CRAI are slightly larger than those from ERA5. The main discrepancy in the energy components stems from the conversion of baroclinic process, whereas the dominant difference originates from the conversion from stationary eddy available potential energy to stationary eddy kinetic energy (CES), which is caused by systematic differences in the temperature and vertical velocity in low-mid latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and near the Antarctic, where there exist complex terrains. Furthermore, the monthly analysis reveals that the general discrepancy in the temporal variation between the two datasets also lie mainly in the CES as well as corresponding generation and dissipation rates. 展开更多
关键词 GLOBAL ENERGY CYCLE transient waves conversion terms CHINESE REANALYSIS Interim (CRAI) ECMWF REANALYSIS version 5 (ERA5)
July 2019 Released by Cotton Incorporated 预览
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《中国纺织:英文版》 2019年第8期62-63,共2页
Recent price movement Most benchmark prices decreased over the past month. Chinese spot prices were stable. After maintaining a range between 65 and 69 cents/lb since early May, the NY December contract broke lower in... Recent price movement Most benchmark prices decreased over the past month. Chinese spot prices were stable. After maintaining a range between 65 and 69 cents/lb since early May, the NY December contract broke lower in the second week of July and fell to levels near 63 cents/lb. The A Index also declined, dropping from its range between 76 and 78 cents/lb to levels near 74 cents/lb. After falling steeply in May, the China Cotton Index (CC Index 3128B) has been comparatively stable in June and into early July. In international terms, values have held near 94 cents/lb. In domestic terms, values have held near 14,200 RMB/ton. 展开更多
关键词 PRICES MONTH TERMS
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浅析《诗经·魏风》中的训诂术语和训诂内容 预览
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作者 唐七元 王曦 《榆林学院学报》 2019年第3期80-87,共8页
训诂,即用易懂的语言解释难懂的语言,用当代的语言解释古代的语言,又称为“故训”。训诂的主要内容有解释字词、辨析同义词、串讲句义、说明用字现象、注音和校勘等。训诂的主要术语有曰、谓、犹、貌、辞、读如、破读、如字、当作、或... 训诂,即用易懂的语言解释难懂的语言,用当代的语言解释古代的语言,又称为“故训”。训诂的主要内容有解释字词、辨析同义词、串讲句义、说明用字现象、注音和校勘等。训诂的主要术语有曰、谓、犹、貌、辞、读如、破读、如字、当作、或曰、浑言、析言、衍文和脱文等。《诗经·魏风》中的训诂术语繁多,训诂内容复杂,分析《诗经·魏风》中的训诂术语和训诂内容,可以使读者更深入地理解训诂术语与训诂内容。 展开更多
关键词 《诗经·魏风》 训诂 训诂术语 训诂内容
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论中国画术语的英译
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作者 惠娟 贾晓庆 《中国科技翻译》 北大核心 2019年第1期44-47,51共5页
中国画是中国艺术载体之一,为了让中国画'走出去',需要对中国画的理论和方法做出准确的译介。本文结合现有的中国画术语翻译案例及调查问卷,提出'直译'、'直译+图例'、'音译+解释'和'信息填补'... 中国画是中国艺术载体之一,为了让中国画'走出去',需要对中国画的理论和方法做出准确的译介。本文结合现有的中国画术语翻译案例及调查问卷,提出'直译'、'直译+图例'、'音译+解释'和'信息填补'四种国画术语的英译策略,以期规范国画术语翻译,促进中国文化传播。 展开更多
关键词 中国画 术语 翻译
1932年以来杂环化合物的中文命名
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作者 何涓 《化学通报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期373-378,共6页
1932年民国教育部颁布的《化学命名原则》为中文化学名词确立了统一的标准。对于基本杂环母核,制定了"两个从口旁之字"的音译名称作为简名。新中国初期,许多化学家对口旁简名表示不满。他们提议,宜创制一些表意的汉字来指称... 1932年民国教育部颁布的《化学命名原则》为中文化学名词确立了统一的标准。对于基本杂环母核,制定了"两个从口旁之字"的音译名称作为简名。新中国初期,许多化学家对口旁简名表示不满。他们提议,宜创制一些表意的汉字来指称杂环母体,再缀上杂原子的名称,作为杂环化合物的系统名称。同时期颁布的1950年、1953年和1960年《原则》,在杂环母核系统名称上,虽然都接受了这一意译的用字取向,但对于口旁简名并没有废除。1980年《原则》否弃了此前的意译杂环名称,重新确立了口旁音译名称,一直沿用至今。本文进一步分析了杂环母核意译名称在新中国前期提出并得到支持,最终废弃的原因。 展开更多
关键词 杂环 命名 意译 音译 术语
双字格中医脏腑病机术语的特点及英译分析
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作者 付甜甜 邵文锦 《贵阳中医学院学报》 2019年第3期100-102,F0003共4页
本研究从词法结构角度对双字格中医脏腑病机术语进行分类,并在分类的基础上以术语翻译的准确性、系统性和回译性原则为依据,考量四个平行翻译文本的译法。研究发现,双字格脏腑病机术语在词法结构上均属于名词作定语修饰名词的偏正结构,... 本研究从词法结构角度对双字格中医脏腑病机术语进行分类,并在分类的基础上以术语翻译的准确性、系统性和回译性原则为依据,考量四个平行翻译文本的译法。研究发现,双字格脏腑病机术语在词法结构上均属于名词作定语修饰名词的偏正结构,在译法上此类结构可采用单字组合法翻译,译法具有准确性、系统性和回译性。 展开更多
关键词 双字格 脏腑病机 术语 词法结构 英译
合同解释辨 预览 被引量:1
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作者 崔建远 《财经法学》 2018年第4期60-77,共18页
合同解释是为确定当事人共同的意思,对合同(包括合同主体、合同形式、合同书上的印章)及相关资料的含义作分析和说明。不论合同用语是否清楚,均须解释。意思表示虽为合同的核心要素但不可称其为合同,故意思表示解释与合同解释既有相同... 合同解释是为确定当事人共同的意思,对合同(包括合同主体、合同形式、合同书上的印章)及相关资料的含义作分析和说明。不论合同用语是否清楚,均须解释。意思表示虽为合同的核心要素但不可称其为合同,故意思表示解释与合同解释既有相同点,又至少有九个方面的区别。解释单独行为所探求的只是该行为人的意思,在有相对人的场合采客观主义,在无相对人的场合采主观主义。在解释属于契约类型的合同时,须同时关注各方当事人的目的,该目的时常是该方当事人的动机,在少数情况下是典型的交易目的。在解释决议行为时,须确定全体决议人的共同目的,并将该目的与各决议人的动机相区分。合同解释与法律解释在合宪性要求、目的探求、漏洞补充等八个方面均有不同。 展开更多
关键词 合同解释 法律解释 条款 单独行为 决议行为
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