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Extracellular vesicles in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases 预览
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作者 Alisa A.Shaimardanova Valeriya V.Solovyeva +3 位作者 Daria S.Chulpanova Victoria James Kristina V.Kitaeva Albert A.Rizvanov 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期586-596,共11页
Extracellular vesicles,including exosomes and microvesicles,play a fundamental role in the activity of the nervous system,participating in signal transmission between neurons and providing the interaction of central n... Extracellular vesicles,including exosomes and microvesicles,play a fundamental role in the activity of the nervous system,participating in signal transmission between neurons and providing the interaction of central nervous system with all body systems.In many neurodegenerative diseases,neurons pack toxic substances into vesicles and release them into the extracellular space,which leads to the spread of misfolded neurotoxic proteins.The contents of neuron-derived extracellular vesicles may indicate pathological changes in the central nervous system,and the analysis of extracellular vesicle molecular content contributes to the development of non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of many central nervous system diseases.Extracellular vesicles of neuronal origin can be isolated from various biological fluids due to their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier.Today,the diagnostic potential of almost all toxic proteins involved in nervous system disease pathogenesis,specificallyα-synuclein,tau protein,superoxide dismutase 1,FUS,leucine-rich repeat kinase 2,as well as some synaptic proteins,has been well evidenced.Special attention is paid to extracellular RNAs mostly associated with extracellular vesicles,which are important in the onset and development of many neurodegenerative diseases.Depending on parental cell type,extracellular vesicles may have different therapeutic properties,including neuroprotective,regenerative,and anti-inflammatory.Due to nano size,biosafety,ability to cross the blood-brain barrier,possibility of targeted delivery and the lack of an immune response,extracellular vesicles are a promising vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic substances for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and drug delivery to the brain.This review describes modern approaches of diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases using extracellular vesicles. 展开更多
关键词 biomarkers cell-mediated therapy central nervous system DISEASES diagnosis EXOSOMES EXTRACELLULAR RNAS EXTRACELLULAR vesicles microRNAs MICROVESICLES NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
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Effects of miR-219/miR-338 on microglia and astrocyte behaviors and astrocyte-oligodendrocyte precursor cell interactions 预览
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作者 Lan Huong Nguyen William Ong +3 位作者 Kai Wang Mingfeng Wang Dean Nizetic Sing Yian Chew 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期739-747,共9页
MiR-219 and miR-338(miR-219/miR-338)are oligodendrocyte-specific microRNAs.The overexpression of these miRs in oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes their differentiation and maturation into oligodendrocytes,which ... MiR-219 and miR-338(miR-219/miR-338)are oligodendrocyte-specific microRNAs.The overexpression of these miRs in oligodendrocyte precursor cells promotes their differentiation and maturation into oligodendrocytes,which may enhance axonal remyelination after nerve injuries in the central nervous system(CNS).As such,the delivery of miR-219/miR-338 to the CNS to promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation,maturation and myelination could be a promising approach for nerve repair.However,nerve injuries in the CNS also involve other cell types,such as microglia and astrocytes.Herein,we investigated the effects of miR-219/miR-338 treatment on microglia and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo.We found that miR-219/miR-338 diminished microglial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed astrocyte activation.In addition,we showed that miR-219/miR-338 enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and maturation in a scratch assay paradigm that re-created a nerve injury condition in vitro.Collectively,our results suggest miR-219/miR-338 as a promising treatment for axonal remyelination in the CNS following nerve injuries.All experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee(IACUC),Nanyang Technological University(approval No.A0309 and A0333)on April 27,2016 and October 8,2016. 展开更多
关键词 central nervous system electrospinning gene SILENCING GLIA hydrogel MYELINATION nanofibers oligodendroglial POLYCAPROLACTONE spinal cord injury
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Molecular complexity of visual mapping:a challenge for regenerating therapy 预览
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作者 Mara Medori Gonzalo Spelzini Gabriel Scicolone 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期382-389,共8页
Investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of topographically ordered connections in the central nervous system constitutes an important issue in neurobiology because these connect... Investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of topographically ordered connections in the central nervous system constitutes an important issue in neurobiology because these connections are the base of the central nervous system normal function.The dominant model to study the development of topographic maps is the projection from the retinal ganglion cells to the optic tectum/colliculus.The expression pattern of Eph/ephrin system in opposing gradients both in the retina and the tectum,labels the local addresses on the target and gives specific sensitivities to growth cones according to their topographic origin in the retina.The rigid precision of normal retinotopic mapping has prompted the chemoaffinity hypothesis,positing axonal targeting to be based on fixed biochemical affinities between fibers and targets.However,several lines of evidence have shown that the mapping can adjust to experimentally modified targets with flexibility,demonstrating the robustness of the guidance process.Here we discuss the complex ways the Ephs and ephrins interact allowing to understand how the retinotectal mapping is a precise but also a flexible process. 展开更多
关键词 AXON growth AXON guidance development EPH and EPHRIN mapping regeneration RETINAL GANGLION cells retino-tectal system
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Glycogen synthase kinase 3:a crucial regulator of axotomy-induced axon regeneration 预览
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作者 Jinlian Liu Qing Zhou +2 位作者 Chaoqun Liu Chunfeng Liu Saijilafu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第5期859-860,共2页
Following nerve injury,axonal disconnection in neurons usually results in persistent functional deficits,such as paralysis.However,axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have very limited regenerati... Following nerve injury,axonal disconnection in neurons usually results in persistent functional deficits,such as paralysis.However,axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have very limited regenerative ability.Understanding the molecular mechanism of controlling axon regeneration can provide idea for the design of effective therapeutic interventions for CNS injury,such as spinal cord injuries.Efficient axonal regeneration is achieved via gene expression in the neuronal soma,axonal transport of raw materials along the shaft,and membrane and cytoskeleton assembly at the nerve growth cone.Each process is delicately regulated by spatial-temporal controlled signaling pathways that target distinct effectors.Gene expression in the neuronal soma,especially of transcription factors,is often activated immediately following nerve injury.Injury signals at distal axons are interpreted and transmitted back to the soma,initiating a stream of gene expression events which positively regulate subsequent axonal regeneration.Over the past few decades,extensive studies have identified many regeneration-associated genes,including CREB,nuclear factor of activated T-cells,protein 53,Sprr1a,c-Jun,Smad1,activating transcription factor 3,signal transducer and activator of transcription 3,SRF,Sox11,and Kruppel-like factors.However,we know far less about how the coordinated expression of these regeneration-associated genes is regulated during axonal regeneration.Indeed,it is possible that they are regulated by a single common upstream regulator.If so,identification of this upstream regulator will provide us with an invaluable target for the development of more effective treatments for traumatic nerve injuries.Adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons represent a favorable medium in which to study the molecular mechanisms controlling intrinsic neuronal axon growth ability.Axotomy of the peripheral branch of a DRG neuron,known as a “conditioning lesion”,has been well-documented to greatly accelerate axonal growth both in v 展开更多
关键词 GENE expression SPINAL CORD CENTRAL nervous system
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Time course analysis of sensory axon regeneration in vivo by directly tracing regenerating axons 预览
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作者 Yan Gao Yi-Wen Hu +3 位作者 Run-Shan Duan Shu-Guang Yang Feng-Quan Zhou Rui-Ying Wang 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第6期1160-1165,共6页
Most current studies quantify axon regeneration by immunostaining regeneration-associated proteins,representing indirect measurement of axon lengths from both sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and motor neuro... Most current studies quantify axon regeneration by immunostaining regeneration-associated proteins,representing indirect measurement of axon lengths from both sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and motor neurons in the spinal cord.Our recently developed method of in vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA encoding for enhanced green fluorescent protein into adult sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia provides a way to directly and specifically measure regenerating sensory axon lengths in whole-mount nerves.A mouse model of sciatic nerve compression was established by squeezing the sciatic nerve with tweezers.Plasmid DNA carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein was transfected by ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion electroporation 2 or 3 days before injury.Fluorescence distribution of dorsal root or sciatic nerve was observed by confocal microscopy.At 12 and 18 hours,and 1,2,3,4,5,and 6 days of injury,lengths of regenerated axons after sciatic nerve compression were measured using green fluorescence images.Apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglia was determined by western blot assay.We found that in vivo electroporation did not affect caspase-3 expression in dorsal root ganglia.Dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerves were successfully removed and subjected to a rapid tissue clearing technique.Neuronal soma in dorsal root ganglia expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein or fluorescent dye-labeled microRNAs were imaged after tissue clearing.The results facilitate direct time course analysis of peripheral nerve axon regeneration.This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Guilin Medical University,China(approval No.GLMC201503010)on March 7,2014. 展开更多
关键词 axon regeneration cell apoptosis dorsal root ganglion in vivo electroporation micro RNAs peripheral nervous system sciatic nerve tissue clearing
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Genetic targeting of astrocytes to combat neurodegenerative disease 预览
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作者 Rachel Kéry Allen P. F. Chen Gregory W. Kirschen 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期199-211,共13页
Astrocytes, glial cells that interact extensively with neurons and other support cells throughout the central nervous system, have recently come under the spotlight for their potential contribution to, or potential re... Astrocytes, glial cells that interact extensively with neurons and other support cells throughout the central nervous system, have recently come under the spotlight for their potential contribution to, or potential regenerative role in a host of neurodegenerative disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that astrocytes, in concert with microglial cells, activate intrinsic immunological pathways in the setting of neurodegenerative injury, although the direct and indirect consequences of such activation are still largely unknown. We review the current literature on the astrocyte’s role in several neurodegenerative diseases, as well as highlighting recent advances in genetic manipulation of astrocytes that may prove critical to modulating their response to neurological injury, potentially combatting neurodegenerative damage. 展开更多
关键词 Alzheimer's DISEASE amyotrophic lateral SCLEROSIS GLIA immune system inflammation Parkinson's DISEASE reactive ASTROCYTE regeneration
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The Schlager mouse as a model of altered retinal phenotype 预览
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作者 Lakshini Y.Herat Aaron L.Magno +5 位作者 Márcio G.Kiuchi Kristy L.Jackson Revathy Carnagarin Geoffrey A.Head Markus P.Schlaich Vance B.Matthews 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期512-518,共7页
Hypertension is a risk factor for a large number of vision-threatening eye disorders.In this study,we investigated for the first time the retinal neural structure of the hypertensive BPH/2J mouse(Schlager mouse)and co... Hypertension is a risk factor for a large number of vision-threatening eye disorders.In this study,we investigated for the first time the retinal neural structure of the hypertensive BPH/2J mouse(Schlager mouse)and compared it to its control counterpart,the normotensive BPN/3J strain.The BPH/2J mouse is a selectively inbred mouse strain that develops chronic hypertension due to elevated sympathetic nervous system activity.When compared to the BPN/3J strain,the hypertensive BPH/2J mice showed a complete loss of outer layers of the neural retina at 21 weeks of age,which was indicative of a severe vision-threatening disease potentially caused by hypertension.To elucidate whether the retinal neural phenotype in the BPH/2J strain was attributed to increased BP,we investigated the neural retina of both BPN/3J and BPH/2J mice at 4 weeks of age.Our preliminary results showed for the first time that the BPH/2J strain develops severe retinal neural damage at a young age.Our findings suggest that the retinal phenotype in the BPH/2J mouse is possibly due to elevated blood pressure and may be contributed by an early onset spontaneous mutation which is yet to be identified or a congenital defect occurring in this strain.Further characterization of the BPH/2J mouse strain is likely to i)elucidate gene defects underlying retinal disease;ii)understand mechanisms leading to neural retinal disease and iii)permit testing of molecules for translational research to interfere with the progression of retinal disease.The animal experiments were performed with the approval of the Royal Perth Hospital Animal Ethics Committee(R535/17-18)on June 1,2017. 展开更多
关键词 blood pressure eye hypertension mice neural regeneration RETINA Schlager MOUSE SYMPATHETIC nervous system
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The plasticity of plasticity:lesson from remote microglia induced by focal central nervous system injury 预览
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作者 Maria Teresa Viscomi 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期57-58,共2页
The last decades have represented an important season in the re-conceptualization of brain plasticity,especially in extending the concept at events occurring beyond the developmental stage and in demonstrating the pro... The last decades have represented an important season in the re-conceptualization of brain plasticity,especially in extending the concept at events occurring beyond the developmental stage and in demonstrating the profound impact of these changes on so-called spontaneous recovery after central nervous system(CNS)injuries.The study of the cellular,molecular,functional and structural mechanisms involved in brain plasticity has clearly emphasized the multitude of players engaged in this phenomenon,leading to the conceptualization that non-neuronal cells and non-neuronal mechanisms intervene in these changes and orchestrate some of the responses observed(Werner and Stevens,2015).Among the different non-neuronal cells and non-neuronal substrates of injury-induced plasticity is becoming increasingly recognized that microglia drive a series of intrinsic CNS responses after damage(Sandvig et al.,2018;Bisicchia et al.,2019). 展开更多
关键词 PLASTICITY system INJURIES
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The first two cases of transcatheter mitral valve repair with ARTO system in Asia 预览
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作者 Kai-da Ren Zhao-xia Pu +10 位作者 Lei Yu Feng Gao Li-han Wang Stella Ng Ju-bo Jiang Hua-jun Li Yong Xu Wei He Min Yan Xian-bao Liu Jian-an Wang 《世界急诊医学杂志(英文)》 CAS CSCD 2020年第1期33-36,共4页
BACKGROUND:MAVERIC(Mitral Valve Repair Clinical Trial)validates the safety and effi cacy of the ARTO system.We here report the fi rst two successful cases of utilizing the ARTO system in patients with symptomatic hear... BACKGROUND:MAVERIC(Mitral Valve Repair Clinical Trial)validates the safety and effi cacy of the ARTO system.We here report the fi rst two successful cases of utilizing the ARTO system in patients with symptomatic heart failure(HF)with functional mitral regurgitation(FMR)in Asia.METHODS:Two patients,aged 70 and 63,had severe HF with FMR.Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed that the left ventricular ejection fractions were less than 50%with severe mitral regurgitation(MR)in both patients.Optimizing drug treatment could not mitigate their symptoms.Therefore,we used the ARTO system to repair the mitral valve for these patients on March 5 and 6,2019,respectively.RESULTS:Mitral valve repairs using the ARTO system were successfully performed under general anaesthesia for these two patients.MR was decreased immediately after the procedures in both patients.The 30-day and 3-month transthoracic echocardiography(TTE)revealed a moderate to severe MR in both patients,and the New York Heart Association(NYHA)scales were also partially improved.CONCLUSION:The first two cases in Asia indicate that the ARTO system is feasible for patients with heart failure with FMR,and the patient selection appears to be crucial. 展开更多
关键词 Mitral regurgitation Mitral valve repair ARTO system
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Cerebrospinal fluid neurogranin as a new player in prion disease diagnosis and prognosis 预览
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作者 Anna Villar-Piqué Inga Zerr Franc Llorens 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第5期861-862,共2页
Neurogranin (Ng) and its role as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker: Ng is a calmodulin-binding protein mainly expressed in cerebral structures such as the cortex,hippocampus and striatum.It is mainly located in the ... Neurogranin (Ng) and its role as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker: Ng is a calmodulin-binding protein mainly expressed in cerebral structures such as the cortex,hippocampus and striatum.It is mainly located in the dendritic processes,particularly in post-synaptic compartments,but also in the cytosolic compartment,being likely involved in the regulation of the intracellular calcium-calmodulin signaling pathway (Represa et al.,1990).In the last decade,a plethora of studies have demonstrated that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ng is increased in AD patients and in individuals with an ADlike CSF profile (Kester et al.,2015a).This increase seems to be disease-specific because other neurodegenerative conditions including frontotemporal dementia,Lewy body dementia,Parkinson’s disease,progressive supranuclear palsy,multiple system atrophy or Huntington’s disease,present CSF Ng concentrations similar to controls (Wellington et al.,2016).Ng levels in CSF appear to be elevated in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-affected individuals who progress to AD and are highly related to memory and cognitive function (Kester et al.,2015a;Tarawneh et al.,2016),which indicates that this protein may serve as an early AD biomarker with diagnostic utility in pre-dementia disease stages,and with prognostic utility to predict cognitive decline and MCI-to-AD conversion. 展开更多
关键词 Represa CEREBROSPINAL FLUID MULTIPLE SYSTEM
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A mimetic peptide ofα2,6-sialyllactose promotes neuritogenesis 预览
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作者 Shuang-Xi Chen Jia-Hui He +3 位作者 Yong-Jian Mi Hui-Fan Shen Melitta Schachner Wei-Jiang Zhao 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第6期1058-1065,共8页
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.With the aim to find reagents that reduce oxidative stress,a phage display library was screened for peptides mimicking a2,6-sialyllactose(... Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.With the aim to find reagents that reduce oxidative stress,a phage display library was screened for peptides mimicking a2,6-sialyllactose(6'-SL),which is known to beneficially influence neural functions.Using Sambucus nigra lectin,which specifically binds to 6'-SL,we screened a phage display library and found a peptide comprising identical sequences of 12 amino acids.Mimetic peptide,reverse peptide and scrambled peptide were tested for inhibition of 6'-SL binding to the lectin.Indeed,lectin binding to 6'-SL was inhibited by the most frequently identified mimetic peptide,but not by the reverse or scrambled peptides,showing that this peptide mimics 6'-SL.Functionally,mimetic peptide,but not the reverse or scrambled peptides,increased viability and expression of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells,and promoted survival and neurite outgrowth of cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons challenged by H_20_2-induced oxidative stress.The combined results indicate that the 6'-SL mimetic peptide promotes neuronal survival and neuritogenesis,thus raising hopes for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Shantou University Medical College,China(approval No.SUMC 2014-004)on February 20,2014. 展开更多
关键词 central nervous system cerebellar granule neurons mimetic peptide neural cell adhesion molecule L1 NEURITOGENESIS neurodegenerative disease neuronal survival oxidative stress phage display Sambucus nigra lectin α2 6-sialyllactose
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Brain activation induced by different strengths of hand grasp:a functional magnetic resonance imaging study 预览
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作者 Hyeok Gyu Kwon Ju Sang Kim Mi Young Lee 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第5期875-879,共5页
Mirror neuron system can be activated by observation and execution of an action.It has an important function of action understanding.We investigated brain activations in humans by observing the strength of a hand gras... Mirror neuron system can be activated by observation and execution of an action.It has an important function of action understanding.We investigated brain activations in humans by observing the strength of a hand grasp using functional magnetic resonance imaging.Twenty right-handed healthy individuals,consisting of 10 males and 10 females,aged 22.40 ± 2.04 years,were recruited into this study from September to November 2017 via posters.Light hand grasp task video showed a hand lightly grasping and releasing a ball repeatedly.Powerful hand grasp task video showed a hand tightly grasping and releasing a ball repeatedly.Functional magnetic resonance imaging block design paradigm comprised five stimulation blocks alternating with five baseline blocks.Stimulation blocks were presented with two stimulus tasks,consisting of a light grasp and a powerful grasp.Region of interest was defined around the inferior parietal lobule,inferior frontal gyrus,and superior temporal sulcus which have been called mirror neuron system.The inferior parietal lobule,fusiform,postcentral,occipital,temporal,and frontal gyri were activated during light and powerful grasp tasks.The BOLD signal response of a powerful grasp was stronger than that of a light grasp.These results suggest that brain activation of the inferior parietal lobule,which is the core brain region of the mirror neuron system,was stronger in the powerful grasp task than in the light grasp task.We believe that our results might be helpful for instructing rehabilitation of brain injury.This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Daegu Oriental Hospital of Daegu Haany University on September 8,2017 (approval No.DHUMC-D-17020-PRO-01). 展开更多
关键词 BRAIN activation fMRI human BRAIN INFERIOR PARIETAL lobule light GRASP mirror NEURON system POWERFUL GRASP
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Taking central nervous system regenerative therapies to the clinic:curing rodents versus nonhuman primates versus humans 预览
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作者 Magdalini Tsintou Kyriakos Dalamagkas Nikos Makris 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期425-437,共13页
The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of ef... The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of effective and safe therapeutic options for such patients.Despite the high prevalence of stroke and spinal cord injury in the general population,these conditions remain incurable and place a heavy burden on patients’families and on society more broadly.Neuroregeneration and neural engineering are diverse biomedical fields that attempt reparative treatments,utilizing stem cells-based strategies,biologically active molecules,nanotechnology,exosomes and highly tunable biodegradable systems(e.g.,certain hydrogels).Although there are studies demonstrating promising preclinical results,safe clinical translation has not yet been accomplished.A key gap in clinical translation is the absence of an ideal animal or ex vivo model that can perfectly simulate the human microenvironment,and also correspond to all the complex pathophysiological and neuroanatomical factors that affect functional outcomes in humans after central nervous system injury.Such an ideal model does not currently exist,but it seems that the nonhuman primate model is uniquely qualified for this role,given its close resemblance to humans.This review considers some regenerative therapies for central nervous system repair that hold promise for future clinical translation.In addition,it attempts to uncover some of the main reasons why clinical translation might fail without the implementation of nonhuman primate models in the research pipeline. 展开更多
关键词 animal models central nervous system regeneration clinical translation exosomes HYDROGELS neural tissue engineering nonhuman PRIMATES spinal cord injury stem cells stroke
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Glutamate receptors and glutamatergic signalling in the peripheral nerves 预览
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作者 Ting-Jiun Chen Maria Kukley 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期438-447,共10页
In the peripheral nervous system,the vast majority of axons are accommodated within the fibre bundles that constitute the peripheral nerves.Axons within the nerves are in close contact with myelinating glia,the Schwan... In the peripheral nervous system,the vast majority of axons are accommodated within the fibre bundles that constitute the peripheral nerves.Axons within the nerves are in close contact with myelinating glia,the Schwann cells that are ideally placed to respond to,and possibly shape,axonal activity.The mechanisms of intercellular communication in the peripheral nerves may involve direct contact between the cells,as well as signalling via diffusible substances.Neurotransmitter glutamate has been proposed as a candidate extracellular molecule mediating the cross-talk between cells in the peripheral nerves.Two types of experimental findings support this idea:first,glutamate has been detected in the nerves and can be released upon electrical or chemical stimulation of the nerves;second,axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves express glutamate receptors.Yet,the studies providing direct experimental evidence that intercellular glutamatergic signalling takes place in the peripheral nerves during physiological or pathological conditions are largely missing.Remarkably,in the central nervous system,axons and myelinating glia are involved in glutamatergic signalling.This signalling occurs via different mechanisms,the most intriguing of which is fast synaptic communication between axons and oligodendrocyte precursor cells.Glutamate receptors and/or synaptic axon-glia signalling are involved in regulation of proliferation,migration,and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells,survival of oligodendrocytes,and re-myelination of axons after damage.Does synaptic signalling exist between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves?What is the functional role of glutamate receptors in the peripheral nerves?Is activation of glutamate receptors in the nerves beneficial or harmful during diseases?In this review,we summarise the limited information regarding glutamate release and glutamate receptors in the peripheral nerves and speculate about possible mechanisms of glutamatergic signalling in the nerves.We highli 展开更多
关键词 AMPA RECEPTORS axons GLUTAMATE METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS MYELINATION nerve injury NMDA RECEPTORS peripheral nervous system PNS Schwann cells synaptic SIGNALLING
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The petroleum system:a new classification scheme based on reservoir qualities
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作者 Jing-Zhou Zhao Jun Li +3 位作者 Wei-Tao Wu Qing Cao Yu-Bin Bai Chuang Er 《石油科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期229-251,共23页
A new classification of petroleum systems(PSs) based on reservoir qualities is proposed. We classify PSs into the following three basic types:(1) source-rock petroleum system(SPS);(2) tight-reservoir or tight petroleu... A new classification of petroleum systems(PSs) based on reservoir qualities is proposed. We classify PSs into the following three basic types:(1) source-rock petroleum system(SPS);(2) tight-reservoir or tight petroleum system(TPS);and(3) conventional-reservoir or conventional petroleum system(CPS). The CPS is a PS in which hydrocarbons accumulate in conventional reservoirs, and all the essential elements and processes are significant and indispensable. Oil and gas accumulations are geographically discrete and therefore exist as discontinuous accumulations. The TPS is a PS where hydrocarbons accumulate in tight reservoirs and the source rock, reservoir, seal, migration, and trap are also indispensable,but the traps are mostly non-anticlinal and the accumulations are primarily quasi-continuous and secondarily discontinuous. The SPS is a PS where both hydrocarbon generation and accumulation occurred in source rocks and traps and migration are unnecessary or inconsequential;the hydrocarbon distribution is extensive and continuous and has no distinct boundaries. The aforementioned three PSs can be derived from a common hydrocarbon source kitchen and are closely linked in terms of their formation and distribution. Therefore, to maximize the exploration efficiency, a comprehensive study and different strategies are needed by considering the SPS, TPS, and CPS as parts of a greater whole. 展开更多
关键词 PETROLEUM SYSTEM Classification CONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM SYSTEM UNCONVENTIONAL PETROLEUM SYSTEM Source-rock PETROLEUM SYSTEM TIGHT PETROLEUM SYSTEM
Characteristics of Chinese Medicine Education Under British Education System in New Zealand
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作者 CHANG Zhe ZHANG Chen-ming +3 位作者 SUN Zi-xue WANG Zu-long CHEN Jian-she WANG Zheng 《中国结合医学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第12期936-938,共3页
With the globalisation of Chinese medicine(CM), the local CM education institutions were established in many other countries outside of China. These CM education institutions have formed a new mode in CM education aft... With the globalisation of Chinese medicine(CM), the local CM education institutions were established in many other countries outside of China. These CM education institutions have formed a new mode in CM education after integrating with local culture, law and national conditions. This article takes New Zealand CM education institutions as an example to discuss the characteristics of CM education under the British education system, aiming to provide ideas on CM education in China and other countries. 展开更多
关键词 British education system Chinese medicine education education grading system moderation system
A Sightseeing Spot Recommendation System for Urban Smart Tourism Based on Users’ Priority Conditions 预览
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作者 Yuya Mukasa Kayoko Yamamoto 《土木工程与建筑:英文版》 2019年第10期622-640,共19页
The present study aimed to design,develop,operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system as a smart tourism tool that gathers and accumulates sightseeing spot information and considers personal preferen... The present study aimed to design,develop,operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system as a smart tourism tool that gathers and accumulates sightseeing spot information and considers personal preferences as well as priority conditions to support tourism activities,especially in urban tourist areas.The system was developed by integrating web-geographic information systems(Web-GIS),the recommendation system and the evaluation system.Additionally,the system was operated for 4 weeks in the central part of Yokohama City in Kanagawa Prefecture,Japan,and the total number of users was 62.Based on the results of the web questionnaire survey,the system was highly useful for sightseeing activities,and further utilization of each function can be expected by continuing the operation.From the results of access analysis of users’log data,it is evident that the system has been used by different types of information terminals just as it was designed for,and that the system has been used according to the purpose of the present study,which is to support the sightseeing activities of users.However,the number of visits to pages related to the evaluation function of sightseeing spots and submitting function of new sightseeing spot information was low.This may improve if the system operation is conducted on a long-term basis. 展开更多
关键词 Sightseeing spot recommendation system Web-GIS evaluation system recommendation system urban smart tourism users’ priority conditions
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Experimental Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Model Wind Rotor System and on Characterization of A Wind Generation System 预览
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作者 MENG Long HE Yan-ping +2 位作者 ZHAO Yong-sheng PENG Tao YANG Jie 《中国海洋工程:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第2期137-147,共11页
In order to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of 6-MW wind turbine, experimental study on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model rotor system and on characterization of a wind generation system is carr... In order to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of 6-MW wind turbine, experimental study on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model rotor system and on characterization of a wind generation system is carried out. In the test, a thrust-matched rotor system and a geometry-matched rotor system, which utilize redesigned thrustmatched and original geometry-matched blades, respectively, are applied. The 6-MW wind turbine system is introduced briefly. The proper scaling laws for model tests are established in the paper, which are then implemented in the construction of a model wind turbine with optimally designed blades. And the parameters of the model are provided. The aerodynamic characteristics of the proposed 6-MW wind rotor system are explored by testing a 1:65.3 scale model at the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Before carrying out the wind rotor system test, the turbulence intensity and spatial uniformity of the wind generation system are tested and results demonstrate that the characterization of the wind generation system is satisfied and the average turbulence intensity of less than 10% within the wind rotor plane is proved in the test. And then, the aerodynamic characteristics of 6-MW wind rotor system are investigated. The response characteristic differences between the thrust-matched rotor system and the geometry-matched rotor system are presented. Results indicate that the aerodynamic characteristics of 6-MW wind rotor with the thrust-matched rotor system are satisfied. The conclusion is that the thrust-matched rotor system can better reflect the characteristics of the prototype wind turbine. A set of model test method is proposed in the work and preparations for further model basin test of the 6-MW SPAR-type floating offshore wind turbine system are made. 展开更多
关键词 thrust-matched ROTOR SYSTEM geometry-matched ROTOR SYSTEM WIND generation SYSTEM experimental study aerodynamic characteristics
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Human Cyber Physical Systems(HCPSs)in the Context of New-Generation Intelligent Manufacturing 预览
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作者 Zhou Ji Zhou Yanhong +1 位作者 Wang Baicun Zang Jiyuan 《工程(英文)》 2019年第4期624-636,共13页
An intelligent manufacturing system is a composite intelligent system comprising humans,cyber systems,and physical systems with the aim of achieving specific manufacturing goals at an optimized level.This kind of inte... An intelligent manufacturing system is a composite intelligent system comprising humans,cyber systems,and physical systems with the aim of achieving specific manufacturing goals at an optimized level.This kind of intelligent system is called a human-cyber-physical system(HCPS).In terms of technology,HCPSs can both reveal technological principles and form the technological architecture for intelligent manufacturing.It can be concluded that the essence of intelligent manufacturing is to design,construct,and apply HCPSs in various cases and at different levels.With advances in information technology,intelligent manufacturing has passed through the stages of digital manufacturing and digital-networked manufacturing,and is evolving toward new-generation intelligent manufacturing(NGIM).NGIM is characterized by the in-depth integration of new-generation artificial intelligence(AI)technology(i.e.,enabling technology)with advanced manufacturing technology(i.e.,root technology);it is the core driving force of the new industrial revolution.In this study,the evolutionary footprint of intelligent manufacturing is reviewed from the perspective of HCPSs,and the implications,characteristics,technical frame,and key technologies of HCPSs for NGIM are then discussed in depth.Finally,an outlook of the major challenges of HCPSs for NGIM is proposed. 展开更多
关键词 NEW-GENERATION intelligent MANUFACTURING Human-cyber-physical SYSTEM Human-physical SYSTEM Cyber-physical SYSTEM Knowledge engineering Enabling TECHNOLOGY MANUFACTURING domain TECHNOLOGY NEW-GENERATION artificial INTELLIGENCE
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一类非线性差分方程组的李亚普洛夫型不等式(英文) 预览
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作者 魏耿平 《数学季刊:英文版》 2019年第1期88-98,共11页
This paper establishes several new Lyapunov-type inequalities for the system of nonlinear difference equations■,which extend/supplement and improve some related existing ones.
关键词 Lyapunov-type INEQUALITY Linear DIFFERENCE SYSTEM NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE SYSTEM HAMILTONIAN DIFFERENCE SYSTEM
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