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深圳市2016-2018年耐利福平结核病中耐多药结核病分布特征
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作者 卢春容 吴清芳 +6 位作者 谭卫国 卓志鹏 季乐财 罗一婷 车晓玲 杨冰玲 余卫业 《中国热带医学》 CAS 2019年第9期856-859,867共5页
目的掌握深圳市耐利福平结核病中耐多药结核病检出情况及其分布特征,为制定耐药结核病临床治疗及预防控制措施提供理论依据。方法收集2016—2018年在中国疾病预防控制信息系统《结核病信息管理系统》登记报告的深圳市耐药可疑肺结核患... 目的掌握深圳市耐利福平结核病中耐多药结核病检出情况及其分布特征,为制定耐药结核病临床治疗及预防控制措施提供理论依据。方法收集2016—2018年在中国疾病预防控制信息系统《结核病信息管理系统》登记报告的深圳市耐药可疑肺结核患者信息资料,对耐利福平肺结核及其中的耐多药肺结核病检出情况、分布特征进行分析。结果2016—2018年报告耐药可疑肺结核病7 669例,检出耐利福平肺结核病664例,检出率为8.7%。其中耐多药肺结核病506例(占76.2%);2016—2018年耐利福平肺结核病检出率分别为8.5%、9.1%、8.3%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);耐多药肺结核病检出率分别为6.3%、7.5%、6.0%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。2016—2018年共报告耐利福平肺结核病男性检出率为8.7%,女性为8.6%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);耐多药肺结核病男性检出率为6.3%,女性为7.2%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。职业分类为教师、学生、农民、民工、餐饮食品业的耐利福平结核病患者中耐多药结核病患者占100.0%,登记分类为返回的耐利福平结核病患者中耐多药结核病患者占100.0%。结论深圳市耐利福平肺结核病中耐多药结核病检出率较高,在师生、农民工及返回类耐利福平结核病患者中表现最为明显,建议对该类耐利福平结核病患者的治疗尽早采取强化方案,提高师生及农民工患者管治质量,避免服药中断,降低耐药肺结核病发生。 展开更多
关键词 结核病 耐药性 耐多药性 利福平 耐多药结核病 检出率
2017年安徽省某三甲医院细菌耐药性监测 预览
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作者 胡志军 潘恺 +3 位作者 潘晓龙 朱娟娟 周佳丽 唐吉斌 《中国抗生素杂志》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期248-253,共6页
目的了解铜陵市人民医院2017年临床分离细菌对抗菌药物的耐药状况。方法对2017年1-12月临床分离菌采用纸片扩散法(KB)进行药敏试验,按CLSI 2017年版标准判读药敏试验结果,采用WHONET 5.6软件进行数据分析。结果临床分离细菌共3436株,其... 目的了解铜陵市人民医院2017年临床分离细菌对抗菌药物的耐药状况。方法对2017年1-12月临床分离菌采用纸片扩散法(KB)进行药敏试验,按CLSI 2017年版标准判读药敏试验结果,采用WHONET 5.6软件进行数据分析。结果临床分离细菌共3436株,其中革兰阳性菌719株,占20.9%;革兰阴性菌2717株,占79.1%。耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)和耐甲氧西林凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(MRCNS)的检出率分别为23.8%和72.3%,耐甲氧西林株对β-内酰胺类抗生素和其他测试抗菌药物的耐药率显著高于甲氧西林敏感株,未发现对万古霉素和替考拉宁耐药的葡萄球菌。粪肠球菌对青霉素、氨苄西林和呋喃妥因的耐药率较低,屎肠球菌对氯霉素的耐药率较低,5.3%屎肠球菌对万古霉素耐药。大肠埃希菌、克雷伯菌属(肺炎克雷伯菌和产酸克雷伯菌)和奇异变形菌中ESBLs的检出率分别为41.4%、50.7%和19.4%。肠杆菌科细菌中克雷伯菌属和沙雷菌属对碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药率较高,分别为37.5%和36.0%,其他菌属的耐药率低于3%。鲍曼不动杆菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别80.3%和79.1%;铜绿假单胞菌对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率分别为29.7%和28.4%。肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌和铜绿假单胞菌中广泛耐药株的检出率分别为31.3%(171/546)、0.6%(3/508)和0.7%(3/416)。结论本院革兰阴性菌呈增多趋势,尤其广泛耐药的肺炎克雷伯菌应引起高度关注,做好细菌耐药性监测,加强临床抗菌药物的合理使用和医院感染控制。 展开更多
关键词 细菌耐药性监测 抗菌药物 广泛耐药菌 耐碳青霉烯类肠杆菌科细菌 耐万古霉素肠球菌
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Activities of Biapenem against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Macrophages and Mice 预览
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作者 GUO Zhen Yong ZHAO Wei Jie +4 位作者 ZHENG Mei Qin LIU Shuo YAN Chen Xia LI Peng XU Shao Fa 《生物医学与环境科学:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期235-241,共7页
Objective To assess the activities of biapenem against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods Biapenem/clavulanate(BP/CL) was evaluated for in vitro activity against Myc... Objective To assess the activities of biapenem against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods Biapenem/clavulanate(BP/CL) was evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb) multidrug-resistant(MDR) isolates, extensively drug-resistant(XDR) isolates, and the H37 RV strain. BP/CL activity against the H37 Rv strain was assessed in liquid cultures, in macrophages, and in mice. Results BP/CL exhibited activity against MDR and XDR Mtb isolates in liquid cultures. BP/CL treatment significantly reduced the number of colony forming units(CFU) of Mtb within macrophages compared with control untreated infected macrophages. Notably, BP/CL synergized in pairwise combinations with protionamide, aminosalicylate, and capreomycin to achieve a fractional inhibitory concentration for each pairing of 0.375 in vitro. In a mouse tuberculosis infection model, the efficacy of a cocktail of levofloxacin + pyrazinamide + protionamide + aminosalicylate against Mtb increased when the cocktail was combined with BP/CL, achieving efficacy similar to that of the positive control treatment(isoniazid + rifampin + pyrazinamide) after 2 months of treatment. Conclusion BP/CL may provide a new option to clinically treat MDR tuberculosis. 展开更多
关键词 BIAPENEM CLAVULANATE MULTIDRUG resistant EXTENSIVE DRUG-RESISTANT MYCOBACTERIUM tuberculosis Activity Macrophage Synergy
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Treatments and limitations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus:A review of current literature 预览
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作者 Rahul Kashyap Aditya Shah +3 位作者 Taru Dutt Patrick M Wieruszewski Jaishid Ahdal Rishi Jain 《世界临床传染病学杂志》 2019年第1期1-10,共10页
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)has remained a major threat to healthcare;in both hospital and community settings over the past five decades.With the current use of antibiotics for a variety of infect... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)has remained a major threat to healthcare;in both hospital and community settings over the past five decades.With the current use of antibiotics for a variety of infections,including MRSA,emerging resistance is a major concern.Currently available treatments have restrictions limiting their use.These issues include,but are not limited to,side effects,cross-resistance,lack of understanding of pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacodynamics,gradual increment in minimal inhibitory concentration over the period(MIC creep)and ineffectiveness in dealing with bacterial biofilms.Despite availability of various therapeutic options for MRSA,the clinical cure rates remain low with high morbidity and mortality.Given these challenges with existing treatments,there is a need for development of novel agents for MRSA.Along with prompt infection control strategies and strict implementation of antibiotic stewardship,cautious use of newer anti-MRSA agents will be of utmost importance.This article reviews the treatments and limitations of MRSA management and highlights the future path. 展开更多
关键词 METHICILLIN resistant METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Antibiotics MONOTHERAPY
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Benzofuran-isatin-hydroxylimine/thiosemicarbazide hybrids:Design,synthesis and in vitro anti-mycobacterial activity evaluation
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作者 Yaohuan Zhang Ruo Wang +4 位作者 Tesen Zhang Weitao Yan Yihong Chen Yanping Zhang Muyang Zhou 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期653-655,共3页
A series of novel benzofuran-isatin-hydroxylimine/thiosemicarbazide hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-TB activities against drug-sensitive MTB H37Rv and MDR-TB isolates as well a... A series of novel benzofuran-isatin-hydroxylimine/thiosemicarbazide hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-TB activities against drug-sensitive MTB H37Rv and MDR-TB isolates as well as cytotoxicity. All benzofuran-isatin-hydroxylimine/thiosemicarbazide hybrids exhibited considerable in vitro anti-mycobacterial activities against the tested three MTB strains, and all of them also showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The most active hybrid 7f was >4.8 and >51 folds more potent than the first line anti-TB agents RIF and INH against both drug-sensitive MTB H37Rv and MDR-TB isolates, respectively. The results demonstrated the potential utility of benzofuran-isatin-hydroxylimine/-thiosemicarbazide hybrids as anti-TB agents. 展开更多
关键词 BENZOFURAN ISATIN Hybrid compounds Anti-mycobacterial Anti-tubercular Multi-drug resistant STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY relationship
Presence, dissemination and removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in urban drinking water system: A review
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作者 Qiaowen Tan Weiying Li +4 位作者 Junpeng Zhang Wei Zhou Jiping Chen Yue Li Jie Ma 《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期13-27,共15页
Antibiotic resistance in aquatic environment has become an important pollution problem worldwide. In recent years, much attention was paid to antibiotic resistance in urban drinking water systems due to its close rela... Antibiotic resistance in aquatic environment has become an important pollution problem worldwide. In recent years, much attention was paid to antibiotic resistance in urban drinking water systems due to its close relationship with the biosafety of drinking water. This review was focused on the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, as well as the presence, dissemination and removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the urban drinking water system. First, the presence of ARB and ARGs in the drinking water source was discussed. The variation of concentration of ARGs and ARB during coagulation, sedimentation and filtration process were provided subsequently, in which filtration was proved to be a promising technology to remove ARGs. However, biological activated carbon (BAC) process and drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could be incubators which promote the antibiotic resistance, due to the enrichment of ARGs and ARB in the biofilms attached to the active carbon and pipe wall. Besides, as for disinfection process, mechanisms of the inactivation of ARB and the promotion of conjugative transfer of ARGs under chlorine, ozone and UV disinfection were described in detail. Here we provide some theoretical support for future researches which aim at antibiotic resistance controlling in drinking water. 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic resistant BACTERIA Antibiotic resistance genes WATER source DRINKING WATER treatment plant DRINKING WATER distribution SYSTEM Urban DRINKING WATER SYSTEM
Influence of Herbicides on Competition Weed and Glyphosateresistant Soybean 预览
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作者 Liu Sheng-nan Ding Wei 《东北农业大学学报:英文版》 CAS 2019年第2期15-24,共10页
Competitions of light,nutrient and water between transgenic glyphosate resistant soybean and weed were evaluated with different herbicides(glyphosate,acetochlor,and the mixture of fomesafen and quizalofop-p-ethyl)in f... Competitions of light,nutrient and water between transgenic glyphosate resistant soybean and weed were evaluated with different herbicides(glyphosate,acetochlor,and the mixture of fomesafen and quizalofop-p-ethyl)in filed,which displayed that the application of the mixture of fomesafen and quizalofop-p-ethyl on soybeans had the best anti-herbicidal effect while glyphosate had the weakest effect.The half-life extended by herbicide mixture would affect the soil nutrients.Weed-soybean competitions affected the absorption of nutrients on soybean and yield.However,effective control of weeds could significantly reduce the weed density,improve the field through different layers of light transmittance and the absorption of nutrients on soybean,and enhance the comprehensive competitiveness of soybean. 展开更多
关键词 transgenic GLYPHOSATE resistant SOYBEAN NUTRIENT light WEED survival COMPETITION
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难治性高血压基层筛查干预技术的社区应用效果
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作者 徐小玲 俞蔚 +3 位作者 严静 丁芳 胡世云 杨丽 《中华全科医师杂志》 2019年第1期47-51,共5页
目的探讨适宜基层应用的难治性高血压(RH)筛查技术,并观察应用效果。方法2015年10月至2016年9月,采用随机抽样方法,选择浙江省杭州市、诸暨市两个研究社区纳入管理的1 171例高血压患者,对其中符合RH诊断的97例患者应用RH三步筛查流程法... 目的探讨适宜基层应用的难治性高血压(RH)筛查技术,并观察应用效果。方法2015年10月至2016年9月,采用随机抽样方法,选择浙江省杭州市、诸暨市两个研究社区纳入管理的1 171例高血压患者,对其中符合RH诊断的97例患者应用RH三步筛查流程法进行筛查,并开展个体化干预指导,比较干预前后规范治疗和生活方式改善情况。结果97例"RH"患者中,检出假性RH 7例,有甲状腺疾病病史者2例、打鼾史48例,睡眠呼吸暂停综合征1例。对90例RH患者存在的危险因素进行个体化干预,并规范用药指导。1年后结果显示,患者规范血压测量率达83.5%(75/90);规范联合降压药物治疗率由14.4%(13/90)提高到90.0%(81/90);药物治疗依从性由46.7%(42/90)提高到95.6%(86/90),血压控制率由12.2%(11/90)提高到77.8%(70/90),平均收缩压及舒张压水平分别下降20.4 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)和15.5 mmHg;生活方式干预取得显著成效,56.7%(51/90)的患者经常参加运动,高盐/高热卡饮食者由37.8%(34/90)下降到11.1%(10/90),肥胖患者比例由26.7%(24/90)下降到16.7%(15/90),各项差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用RH基层筛查干预技术,能规范基层血压测量和诊断技术,排除假性RH;提高基层医生对RH原因的分析、评估能力,以及合理用药水平;改善患者不良的生活方式,进一步提高社区高血压治疗率和控制率。 展开更多
关键词 高血压 难治性 基层 筛查干预
A drought resistance index to select drought resistant plant species based on leaf water potential measurements 预览
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作者 SayedJamaleddin KHAJEDDIN SayedHamid MATINKHAH Zahra JAFARI 《干旱区科学:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期623-635,共13页
The water deficit in arid and semi-arid regions is the primary limiting factor for the development of urban greenery and forestation. In addition, planting the species that consume low levels of water is useful in ari... The water deficit in arid and semi-arid regions is the primary limiting factor for the development of urban greenery and forestation. In addition, planting the species that consume low levels of water is useful in arid and semi-arid regions that have poor water management measures. Leaf water potential(Ψ) is a physiological parameter that can be used to identify drought resistance in various species. Indeed, Ψ is one of the most important properties of a plant that can be measured using a pressure chamber. Drought avoiding or drought resistant species have a lower Ψ than plants that use normal or high levels of water. To determine drought resistance of species that are suitable for afforestation in arid urban regions, we evaluated twenty woody species in the Isfahan City, central Iran. The experimental design was random split-split plots with five replications. The species were planted outdoor in plastic pots and then subjected to treatments that consisted of two soil types and five drip irrigation regimes. To evaluate the resistance of each species to drought, we used the Ψ and the number of survived plants to obtain the drought resistance index(DRI). Then, cluster analysis, dendrogram, and similarity index were used to group the species using DRI. Result indicates that the evaluated species were classified into five groups:(1) high water consuming species(DRI>–60 MPa);(2) above normal water consuming species(–60 MPa≥DRI>–90 MPa);(3) normal water consuming species(–90 MPa≥DRI>–120 MPa);(4) semi-drought resistant species(–120 MPa≥DRI>–150 MPa);and(5) drought resistant species(DRI≤–150 MPa). According to the DRI, Salix babylonica L., Populus alba L., and P. nigra L. are high water consuming species, Platanus orientalis L. and Albizia julibrissin Benth are normal water consuming species, and Quercus infectoria Oliv. and Olea europaea L. can be considered as drought resistant species. 展开更多
关键词 DROUGHT RESISTANT species DROUGHT resistance index forestation leaf WATER potential WATER DEFICIT
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Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of a Newly Developed Austenitic Heat Resistant Steel
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作者 Peng Liu Zhao-Kuang Chu +5 位作者 Yong Yuan Dao-Hong Wang Chuan-Yong Cui Gui-Chen Hou Yi-Zhou Zhou Xiao-Feng Sun 《金属学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期517-525,共9页
The effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a newly developed austenitic heat resistant steel(named as T8 alloy) for ultra-supercritical applications have been studied. Results sho... The effect of heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of a newly developed austenitic heat resistant steel(named as T8 alloy) for ultra-supercritical applications have been studied. Results show that the main phases in the alloy after solution treatment are γ and primary MX. Subsequent aging treatment causes the precipitation of M23C6 carbides along the grain boundaries and a small number of nanoscale MX inside the grains. In addition, with increasing the aging temperature and time, the morphology of M23C6 carbides changes from semi-continuous chain to continuous network.Compared with a commercial HR3C alloy, T8 alloy has comparable tensile strength, but higher stress rupture strength. The dominant cracking mechanism of the alloy during tensile test at room temperature is transgranular, while at high temperature, intergranular cracking becomes the main cracking mode, which may be caused by the precipitation of continuous M23C6 carbides along the grain boundaries. Typical intergranular cracking is the dominant cracking mode of the alloy at all stress rupture tests. 展开更多
关键词 AUSTENITIC heat RESISTANT steel Microstructure Mechanical PROPERTY FRACTURE mode
National Joint Engineering Research Center of High Performance Metal Wear Resistant Materials Technology
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《中国铸造:英文版》 SCIE 2019年第1期82-83,共2页
Founded in 2012,the National Joint Engineering Research Center of High Performance Metal Wear Resistant Materials Technology at Jinan University,one of the'211'key national universities in China,specializes in... Founded in 2012,the National Joint Engineering Research Center of High Performance Metal Wear Resistant Materials Technology at Jinan University,one of the'211'key national universities in China,specializes in the research and development of iron based wear resistant materials and their casting technologies to provide support to the production process.The Research Center serves the'Guangdong Province Ceeusro Innovation Platform for Common Technology of High Performance Wear Resistant Materials”,“Guangdong Province Engineering Research Center for Wear Resistant and Special Functional Materials”. 展开更多
关键词 NATIONAL JOINT Engineering Research CENTER of High Performance METAL WEAR RESISTANT Materials Technology
耐碳青霉烯肠杆菌科细菌定植与感染研究进展
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作者 张侃 马琳 +1 位作者 王博 管希周 《国际呼吸杂志》 2019年第10期788-792,共5页
近年来,由于抗菌药物的广泛使用、耐药菌株突变等原因,耐碳青霉烯类肠杆菌科细菌(carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,CRE)日益增多,CRE已成为公共卫生安全的巨大威胁。肠道定植CRE已被认为是全身感染CRE的一个重要危险因素,去定... 近年来,由于抗菌药物的广泛使用、耐药菌株突变等原因,耐碳青霉烯类肠杆菌科细菌(carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae,CRE)日益增多,CRE已成为公共卫生安全的巨大威胁。肠道定植CRE已被认为是全身感染CRE的一个重要危险因素,去定植是减少CRE携带并可能减少CRE感染的有效的措施。 展开更多
关键词 碳青霉烯类 耐药 肠杆菌科细菌 定植 感染
Achieving control of resistant hypertension:Not just the number of blood pressure medications 预览
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作者 Kara Schmidt William Kelley +1 位作者 Steven Tringali Jian Huang 《世界高血压杂志》 2019年第1期1-16,共16页
Resistant hypertension (RH) has a prevalence of around 12% and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease,progression to end-stage renal disease,and even mortality.In 2017,the American College of C... Resistant hypertension (RH) has a prevalence of around 12% and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease,progression to end-stage renal disease,and even mortality.In 2017,the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association released updated guidelines that detail steps to ensure proper diagnosis of RH,including the exclusion of pseudoresistance.Lifestyle modifications,such as low salt diet and physical exercise,remain at the forefront of optimizing blood pressure control.Secondary causes of RH also need to be investigated,including screening for obstructive sleep apnea.Notably,the guidelines demonstrate a major change in medication management recommendations to include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.In addition to advances in medication optimization,there are several device-based therapies that have been showing efficacy in the treatment of RH.Renal denervation therapy has struggled to show efficacy for blood pressure control,but with a redesigned catheter device,it is once again being tested in clinical trials.Carotid baroreceptor activation therapy (BAT) via an implantable pulse generator has been shown to be effective in lowering blood pressure both acutely and in longterm follow up data,but there is some concern about the safety profile.Both a second-generation pulse generator and an endovascular implant are being tested in new clinical trials with hopes for improved safety profiles while maintaining therapeutic efficacy.Both renal denervation and carotid BAT need continued study before widespread clinical implementation.Central arteriovenous anastomosis has emerged as another possible therapy and is being actively explored.The ongoing pursuit of blood pressure control is a vital part of minimizing adverse patient outcomes.The future landscape appears hopeful for helping patients achieve blood pressure goals not only through the optimization of antihypertensive medications but also through device-based therapies in select individuals. 展开更多
关键词 Resistant HYPERTENSION Pseudoresistance MINERALOCORTICOID receptor antagonists Device-based HYPERTENSION treatment Renal DENERVATION Carotid BARORECEPTOR activation therapy Central ARTERIOVENOUS anastomosis
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Detection of Gram-Negative Bacteria Carrying the blaKPC-2 Gene from Mangrove Sediments 预览
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作者 Wallace Ribeiro Nunes Neto Jessica Mayara Mendes Araujo +6 位作者 Darlan Ferreira da Silva Joveliane de Melo Monteiro Wallace Borges Pachêco Jessflan Rafael Nascimento Santos Maria Raimunda Chagas Silva Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim Andrea de Souza Monteiro 《药剂与药理学:英文版》 2019年第8期485-492,共8页
Mangroves are environments that have fast cycles associated with high concentration of bacterial decomposers.These are impacted by anthropogenic pollution due to contamination of bacterial species carrying resistance ... Mangroves are environments that have fast cycles associated with high concentration of bacterial decomposers.These are impacted by anthropogenic pollution due to contamination of bacterial species carrying resistance genes.This study aims to evaluate the metabolic profile of the microbiota in mangrove sediments,and verify the presence of Gram-negative bacteria resistant to meropenem.The samples were obtained from location along the Anil river and were seeded in medium supplemented with the antibiotic meropenem in increasing concentrations.The DNA was analyzed by multiplex PCR for detecting resistance genes forβ-lactam antibiotics.The bacteria were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF MS).The genes were sequenced by ABI PRISM 3100,analyzed by MEGA 6.0 program,and the sequence identified was assessed by GenBank using the BLAST algorithm.Ecoplate■the kit was used to determine the metabolic profile of the microbiota.The results of the six bacterial isolates showed the blaKPC-2 gene and were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas putida.The samples showed a greater diversity Shannon index,a rich substrate consumption and high equity.There was a metabolic richness such as carbon consumption profiles,being a factor of adaptation of pathogenic bacteria carrying resistance genes toβ-lactamics antibiotics. 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic RESISTANT MEROPENEM BACTERIAL ISOLATES
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敌委丹种子处理对小麦幼苗生长及茎基腐病的防治效果 预览
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作者 陆宁海 杨蕊 +4 位作者 吴利民 霍云风 郎剑锋 石明旺 陈锡岭 《湖北农业科学》 2019年第4期45-47,50共4页
通过室内试验,研究了敌委丹对小麦种子萌发、促生防病效果。结果表明,敌委丹在合适的浓度下拌种,有促进种子萌发和提高种子活力的效果。当药剂用量为3 mL/kg时,小麦发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数分别为94.72%、34.12和1.46。敌委丹拌种对... 通过室内试验,研究了敌委丹对小麦种子萌发、促生防病效果。结果表明,敌委丹在合适的浓度下拌种,有促进种子萌发和提高种子活力的效果。当药剂用量为3 mL/kg时,小麦发芽势、发芽指数和活力指数分别为94.72%、34.12和1.46。敌委丹拌种对小麦幼苗有促进生长的效果,当药剂用量为3 mL/kg时,小麦幼苗最大根长和地下部分鲜重分别为20.6 cm和2.21 g/10株,株高和地上部分鲜重分别为22.5 cm和4.83 g/10株。敌委丹拌种对小麦茎基腐病具有良好的防治效果,拌种后小麦茎基腐病的病情指数与对照相比显著降低,药剂用量为5 mL/kg时,发病率仅为9.33%,病情指数为6.58,防效高达90.93%。 展开更多
关键词 小麦茎基腐病 敌委丹 种子萌发 种子活力 抗病性
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Cholera:an overview with reference to the Yemen epidemic
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作者 Ali A.Rabaan 《医学前沿:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期213-228,共16页
Cholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae, primarily the V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in... Cholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae, primarily the V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in 95 000 deaths. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera epidemic in Yemen, linked to spread of V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa serotype), is associated with the ongoing war. This has devastated infrastructure and health services. The World Health Organization had estimated that 172 286 suspected cases arose between 27th April and 19th June 2017, including 1170 deaths. While there are three oral cholera vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization, there are issues surrounding vaccination campaigns in conflict situations, exacerbated by external factors such as a global vaccine shortage. Major movements of people complicates surveillance and administration of double doses of vaccines. Cholera therapy mainly depends on rehydration, with use of antibiotics in more severe infections. Concerns have arisen about the rise of antibiotic resistance in cholera, due to mobile genetic elements. In this review, we give an overview of cholera epidemiology, virulence, antibiotic resistance, therapy and vaccines, in the light of the ongoing epidemic in Yemen. 展开更多
关键词 CHOLERA EPIDEMIC multi-drug resistant CATECHIN LUTEOLIN ToxT CTXФ
Antimicrobial Resistance and Plasmid Profiles of <i>Salmonella enterica</i>Serovars from Different Sources in Lagos, Nigeria 预览
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作者 K. O. Akinyemi S. O. Ajoseh +4 位作者 B. A. Iwalokun A. O. B. Oyefolu C. O. Fakorede R. O. Abegunrin O. Adunmo 《健康(英文)》 2018年第6期758-772,共15页
Introduction: Salmonella enterica Serovars remains one of the leading pathogens that cause diarrhoea and bloodstream infections in developing countries. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella has become... Introduction: Salmonella enterica Serovars remains one of the leading pathogens that cause diarrhoea and bloodstream infections in developing countries. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella has become a serious problem globally. This study investigated the antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of Salmonella isolates from different sources. Methods: Seventy-three samples comprised of clinical (30), hand swab (15), food (10) and water (18) were analyzed bacteriologically. Salmonella isolates were identified and characterized by standard procedures. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and were further screened for plasmid DNA by standard methods. Results: A total of 27 Salmonella isolates made up of 5 (18.5%) S. typhi, 6 (22.2%) S. enteritidis, 9 (33.3) S. typhimurium, 5 (18.5%) S. cholerasuis, and 1 (3.7%) each of S.arizonae and S. vichow were obtained in this study. All the isolates developed resistance to three or more antibiotics evaluated. Four distinct resistance profiles: TetAmpCol, TetAmpColCot, TetAmpColCip and TetAmpColCotCip were recorded with 63% of the isolates exhibiting resistance profile TetAmpColCot. Specifically 23 of 27 (85.2%) of the isolates harboured plasmid DNA comprised of 12 distinct plasmid profiles of different sizes ranging from 3.2 kb to 30.2kb. Salmonella isolates of the same species from different sources differed in plasmid profile. Plasmid profile was found to show good discriminatory capability compared to antibiotics resistance profile. Conclusion: This study revealed that both resistance antibiogram and plasmid profile are still viable epidemiological tools for tracing the source of Salmonella isolates. A need for prudent use of antibiotics is suggested. 展开更多
关键词 SALMONELLA Resistant ANTIBIOGRAM Plasmid Epidemiology Disease
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锂离子电容器直流内阻测试方法研究 预览
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作者 王婧 高洪波 +6 位作者 胡道中 魏三平 郑丽花 赵云鹏 钟明 BURKE Andrew F 李灵宏 《储能科学与技术》 CAS CSCD 2018年第6期1242-1247,共6页
直流内阻(简称“内阻”)是衡量超级电容器性能最重要的电化学参数之一,但目前尚未有统一的测试方法用于锂离子电容器的内阻测试。本工作使用不同的充放电测试程序,采用不同的内阻计算方法来评测比较锂离子电容单体样品的内阻值。结... 直流内阻(简称“内阻”)是衡量超级电容器性能最重要的电化学参数之一,但目前尚未有统一的测试方法用于锂离子电容器的内阻测试。本工作使用不同的充放电测试程序,采用不同的内阻计算方法来评测比较锂离子电容单体样品的内阻值。结果表明,不同的充放电测试方法、不同的放电截止电压、不同的内阻计算方法,影响锂离子电容器内阻测量值。以lOOms压降法计算的内阻可能接近放电开始阶段的稳态内阻,可以使用普通国产电池测试设备,简单、易行、可靠,经进一步的验证后,可以考虑推广使用。 展开更多
关键词 锂离子电容器 内阻 充放电测试程序 计算方法 截止电压
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第三代EGFR-TKI奥西替尼治疗NSCLC研究新进展 预览 被引量:1
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作者 邹晓宏 张翠英 《内蒙古医学杂志》 2018年第3期293-295,共3页
靶向治疗的出现为晚期非小细胞肺癌的治疗带来了曙光,然而大部分患者在接受治疗后经历一段时间的中位无进展生存期后,便会出现耐药,导致疾病的进展。针对不同的耐药机制,出现了AZD9291、CO-1686和HM61713等第三代EGFR-TKI。尽管目前AZD9... 靶向治疗的出现为晚期非小细胞肺癌的治疗带来了曙光,然而大部分患者在接受治疗后经历一段时间的中位无进展生存期后,便会出现耐药,导致疾病的进展。针对不同的耐药机制,出现了AZD9291、CO-1686和HM61713等第三代EGFR-TKI。尽管目前AZD9291(奥西替尼/osimertinib)已获批上市用于一线TKI治疗进展且伴T790M突变患者的治疗,临床中对其的研究探索仍在不断进行,本文对EGFR-TKIs的研究进展进行了综述。 展开更多
关键词 晚期NSCLC 耐药 奥西替尼
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Unresolved issues in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis 预览
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作者 Melisa Dirchwolf Sebastián Marciano +1 位作者 José Martínez Andrés Eduardo Ruf 《世界肝病学杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2018年第12期892-897,共6页
Bacterial infections are highly prevalent and a frequent cause of hospitalization and short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Due to their negative impact on survival, antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial inf... Bacterial infections are highly prevalent and a frequent cause of hospitalization and short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Due to their negative impact on survival, antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in high-risk subgroups of patients with cirrhosis has been the standard of care for decades. Patients with prophylaxis indications include those at risk for a first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to a low ascitic fluid protein count and impaired liver and kidney function, patients with a prior episode of SBP and those with an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding. Only prophylaxis due to gastrointestinal bleeding has a known and short-time duration. All other indications imply longlasting exposure to antibiotics - once the threshold requirement for initiating prophylaxis is met - without standardized criteria for re-assessing antibiotic interruption. Despite the fact that the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing bacterial infections episodes and mortality has been thoroughly reported, the extended use of antibiotics in patients with cirrhosis has also had negative consequences, including the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Currently, it is not clear whether restricting the use of broad and fixed antibiotic regimens, tailoring the choice of antibiotics to local bacterial epidemiology or selecting non-antibiotic strategies will be the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for patients with cirrhosis in the future. 展开更多
关键词 CIRRHOSIS Antibiotic PROPHYLAXIS Multi-drug resistant bacteria SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
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