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民主改革以来宁蒗彝族肥料使用变迁研究--以宁蒗彝族自治县大二地彝族村为例 预览
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作者 王勇 和雪康 邸文漪 《红河学院学报》 2020年第1期50-52,共3页
肥料作为自然的产物,源于自然而用于自然,是人与自然联系的纽带。看似肥料的历史表明的是人与自然的历史,但其实肥料中蕴含着国家的隐喻。自民主改革以来,云南小凉山地区的肥料使用产生了巨大历史变迁,其阶段性的改变正好映衬着国家对... 肥料作为自然的产物,源于自然而用于自然,是人与自然联系的纽带。看似肥料的历史表明的是人与自然的历史,但其实肥料中蕴含着国家的隐喻。自民主改革以来,云南小凉山地区的肥料使用产生了巨大历史变迁,其阶段性的改变正好映衬着国家对于彝族及农业等一些列的政策权益的改变。生活中看似普普通通的肥料,却暗含着人与自然,人与社会,人与国家等多层面交流的历史,这也使得肥料具有了历史承载体的意义。 展开更多
关键词 大二地彝族村 肥料 民主改革 变迁
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肉鸭粪便排放特征的季节性变化 预览
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作者 晏婷 朱志平 +4 位作者 高理福 卢连水 孙海层 余鑫 骆乾亮 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期115-123,共9页
本研究旨在探讨肉鸭粪便的特性,并对其不同季节的污染物排放特征进行评价,为肉鸭养殖场废弃物处理和资源化利用提供依据。分4个季节进行了北京Z型肉鸭饲养试验(饲养期37d),记录采食量、产粪量,并定期测定饲料和粪便中水分和有机质含量... 本研究旨在探讨肉鸭粪便的特性,并对其不同季节的污染物排放特征进行评价,为肉鸭养殖场废弃物处理和资源化利用提供依据。分4个季节进行了北京Z型肉鸭饲养试验(饲养期37d),记录采食量、产粪量,并定期测定饲料和粪便中水分和有机质含量及总氮(TN)、P、Cu、Zn含量。结果表明:肉鸭粪便中Zn含量秋季最高,TN、P、Cu含量均为冬季最高;冬季粪便中TN含量极显著高于夏、秋两季(P<0.01);P、Cu含量在冬季均极显著高于其余季节(P<0.01);粪便中Cu、Zn含量均为春季最低。肉鸭粪便平均含水率为84.61%,夏季最高,春季最低;平均有机质含量为83.38%,表现为冬>春>秋>夏。春夏秋冬四季的粪便产生量分别为338.3g·d-1·只-1、275.9 g·d-1·只-1、317.6 g·d-1·只-1和327.0 g·d-1·只-1,夏季最低。TN、P、Cu、Zn的排泄系数分别为2.13 g·d-1·只-1、2.48g·d-1·只-1、2.56 mg·d-1·只-1、21.10 mg·d-1·只-1;春冬两季的TN日排泄量显著高于夏秋两季;P的日排泄量表现为冬季极显著高于其余3个季节;夏季Cu的日排泄量与春季差异不显著,极显著低于秋、冬两季(P<0.01)。TN在秋季排泄占比最低,春季最高;而P排泄占比为秋季最高,春季最低。肉鸭在饲养期TN、P、Cu、Zn的排泄量与对应元素的摄入量具有极显著的正相关关系(P<0.01)。研究表明:季节因素能对肉鸭粪便中含水率、有机质、TN、P、Cu和Zn含量产生显著影响,同时各季节各元素的排泄量与相应元素的摄入量显著相关。 展开更多
关键词 肉鸭 粪便 排放特征 季节性变化
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有机肥撒施技术及装备研究 预览
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作者 马标 付菁菁 +3 位作者 许斌星 吴爱兵 谢虎 陈永生 《中国农机化学报》 北大核心 2019年第8期1-6,共6页
农业废弃物的随意排放、化学肥料的过量施用给环境带来严重破坏。在大力提倡有机肥代替化肥的政策背景和实际需求下,成熟实用的有机肥撒施装备亟待研究和开发。为提高有机肥施用设备的作业质量和工作效率,开发三套有机肥施用装备,可针... 农业废弃物的随意排放、化学肥料的过量施用给环境带来严重破坏。在大力提倡有机肥代替化肥的政策背景和实际需求下,成熟实用的有机肥撒施装备亟待研究和开发。为提高有机肥施用设备的作业质量和工作效率,开发三套有机肥施用装备,可针对不同作业条件实现肥料的定量均匀撒施。针对研发的三套装备结构、工作原理及关键工作部件进行详细介绍,并进行田间试验,检验输肥机构、撒施机构、传动机构、行走机构的工作性能,测定撒肥均匀度、工作幅宽、作业效率等工作参数。结果表明:大田多功能撒肥机圆盘撒肥和拨料辊抛肥机构的横向和纵向均匀度变系数分别为20.6%、15.5%和27.4%、10.7%;履带自走式撒肥机的横向和纵向均匀度变异系数分别为19.5%和10.1%;轮式自走式撒肥机的横向和纵向均匀度变异系数分别为22.7%和11.4%;三台撒肥机的最大工作幅宽分别为7.2 m(圆盘撒肥功能为7.2 m,拨料辊抛肥功能为4.3 m)、5.8 m和5.2 m,三台撒肥机的工作效率分别为1.3 hm~2/h(圆盘撒肥功能为1.3 hm~2/h,拨料辊抛肥功能为0.9 hm~2/h)、0.5 hm~2/h和0.8 hm~2/h。该系列化撒肥机的成功研制为我国农业废弃物肥料化利用提供装备和技术支撑。 展开更多
关键词 有机肥 撒肥机 撒肥幅宽 撒肥均匀性
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Soil Arthropod Abundance and Diversity Following Land Application of Swine Slurry 预览
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作者 Nicole R. Schuster Julie A. Peterson +2 位作者 John E. Gilley Linda R. Schott Amy M. Schmidt 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第2期150-163,共14页
Soil arthropods play an important role in nutrient cycling and maintenance of soil structure, and their abundance and diversity provide an indication of the biological quality of soil. Land application of livestock ma... Soil arthropods play an important role in nutrient cycling and maintenance of soil structure, and their abundance and diversity provide an indication of the biological quality of soil. Land application of livestock manure provides crop nutrients and may also impact the soil arthropod community. This study was conducted to quantify soil arthropod abundance and diversity for a period of one year following swine manure application via broadcast or injection. Arthropods were extracted from plot soil samples using Berlese funnels, identified and counted, and the QBS index (Qualità Biologica del Suolo) was calculated for each soil sample. Collembola (Hypogastruridae and Isotomidae) populations were greater (p p in the injection treatment compared to the broadcast and control treatments. Acari populations and the QBS index were not significantly impacted by manure application. 展开更多
关键词 SOIL ARTHROPOD MANURE Nutrients SWINE SLURRY SOIL Health SOIL Properties
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Production and Water Quality Responses in Tilapia Aquaculture Tanks Receiving Organic Fertilizers and Algae 预览
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作者 Shunlong MENG Dandan LI +7 位作者 Liping QIU Gengdong HU Limin FAN Chao SONG Yao ZHENG Wei WU Jiazhang CHEN Xuwen BING 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第4期156-162,共7页
A two-month trial was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using algae and animal manure in tilapia culture.And the effect of algae,chicken manure and algae mixture together,cattle manure and algae mixture toget... A two-month trial was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using algae and animal manure in tilapia culture.And the effect of algae,chicken manure and algae mixture together,cattle manure and algae mixture together,chicken-cattle manure and algae mixture together on the water quality and tilapia production was researched.The results showed that the yield of tilapia were 3.46,4.33,3.81,2.92 and 3.76 kg in Control,Algae,Chicken-A,Cattle-A and C-C-A,respectively,following the order of Algae>Chicken-A>C-C-A>Control>Cattle-A,and tilapia yield in Algae and chicken manure treatment groups increased by 25.0%and 10.1%respectively compared with the control.Algae and chicken manure could increase the tilapia production,but cattle manure has no the effect.And the effect of algae and animal manure on water quality showed that adding chicken manure into tilapia pond could make water quality decreased at the beginning 20 d,but could increase water quality after 20 d and it can stabilize the phytoplankton structure in aquaculture water.Adding Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda into tilapia pond could make water quality in a good state during the aquaculture process and it can stabilize the phytoplankton structure in aquaculture water. 展开更多
关键词 ALGAE Chicken MANURE CATTLE MANURE TILAPIA PRODUCTION Water quality
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Effect of Organic Fertilizer on Aquaculture Water Quality and Tilapia Production 预览
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作者 Shunlong MENG Xi Chen +8 位作者 Dandan LI Liping QIU Gengdong HU Limin FAN Chao SONG Yao ZHENG Wei WU Jiazhang CHEN Xuwen BING 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2019年第5期92-98,共7页
A two-month trial was carried out in China to evaluate the possibility of recycling animal manure through pond tilapia production.And the effects of chicken manure,cattle manure and chicken-cattle mixture together on ... A two-month trial was carried out in China to evaluate the possibility of recycling animal manure through pond tilapia production.And the effects of chicken manure,cattle manure and chicken-cattle mixture together on the water quality and tilapia production were investigated.The results showed that the yield of tilapia was 3.46,3.89,2.49 and 3.20 kg in the control,chicken M,cattle M,and chicken-cattle M,respectively,and the tilapia yields following the order of chicken M>control>chicken-cattle M>cattle M.The tilapia yield in chicken M group increased by 12.43% compared with the control.Chicken manure could increase the tilapia production,but cattle manure has no the effect.And the effect of animal manure on water quality showed that adding chicken manure into tilapia pond could make water quality decreased at the beginning 20 d,but could increase water quality after 20 d and stabilize the phytoplankton structure. 展开更多
关键词 Chicken MANURE CATTLE MANURE TILAPIA PRODUCTION Water quality AQUACULTURE
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粪便生物炭与土壤重金属污染修复的关系
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作者 陈金敏 胡正峰 +1 位作者 邓盾 朱明乔 《黑龙江畜牧兽医》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期39-45,共7页
生物炭在土壤重金属污染领域得到了较好的应用,但是不同材质的生物炭处理效果有所差异。近年来,许多学者研究粪便生物炭处理土壤重金属污染的修复效果,取得了一些突破,但也存在机制不清晰、处理效果差异大等问题。为进一步提升粪便生物... 生物炭在土壤重金属污染领域得到了较好的应用,但是不同材质的生物炭处理效果有所差异。近年来,许多学者研究粪便生物炭处理土壤重金属污染的修复效果,取得了一些突破,但也存在机制不清晰、处理效果差异大等问题。为进一步提升粪便生物炭在土壤修复中的作用,文章就生物炭固定土壤重金属机制、粪便生物炭对重金属污染土壤的修复、生物炭修复重金属污染土壤的影响因素的研究现状进行了总结,以期为将来的应用提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 生物炭 重金属 作用机理 土壤 粪便 污染修复
庆阳市采用塑料大棚发酵畜禽粪污模式初探 预览
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作者 李世恩 张金霞 +6 位作者 徐振飞 刘雨田 施海娜 朱正正 梁万鹏 高钰 张郁萍 《中国牛业科学》 2019年第5期24-27,30共5页
为了提高粪污发酵速度、缩短发酵时间,减少环境对粪污的承载和消纳能力,笔者通过采用塑料大棚模式发酵粪污,以提高粪污内部温度,添加一定的微生物菌剂,采用高温好氧堆积发酵,在西北气候条件下,使小型养殖场(合作社)粪污发酵比常温堆积... 为了提高粪污发酵速度、缩短发酵时间,减少环境对粪污的承载和消纳能力,笔者通过采用塑料大棚模式发酵粪污,以提高粪污内部温度,添加一定的微生物菌剂,采用高温好氧堆积发酵,在西北气候条件下,使小型养殖场(合作社)粪污发酵比常温堆积发酵时间缩短了40~100 d,使粪污尽快得到还田利用,减少了环境对粪污的承载力。 展开更多
关键词 塑料大棚 发酵 粪污 模式
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粪肥与铜一次性施用对农田土壤抗生素抗性基因的长期影响
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作者 张毓森 叶军 苏建强 《应用与环境生物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期328-332,共5页
人类农业生产活动显著影响农田生态系统中抗生素抗性基因的增殖与扩散,为探究粪肥与铜施加对土壤抗生素抗性基因增殖与传播的长期影响,采用高通量荧光定量聚合酶链式反应分析猪粪和铜停施10年后土壤中抗生素抗性基因多样性和丰度.结果显... 人类农业生产活动显著影响农田生态系统中抗生素抗性基因的增殖与扩散,为探究粪肥与铜施加对土壤抗生素抗性基因增殖与传播的长期影响,采用高通量荧光定量聚合酶链式反应分析猪粪和铜停施10年后土壤中抗生素抗性基因多样性和丰度.结果显示:猪粪和铜停施10年后,土壤抗生素抗性基因相对丰度仍分别处于2.16倍和2.01倍于对照组的较高水平,说明猪粪和铜施用可导致土壤抗生素抗性基因的长期存在,其中ycel_mdtH和cphA基因在猪粪和铜施用两种处理中均显著富集. PCA结果显示,猪粪和铜处理土壤中抗生素抗性基因的分布格局无明显差别,铜处理土壤中所检出的抗生素抗性基因数量的90%以上均可在猪粪施用土壤中检出,而铜是唯一在两种处理土壤中检出浓度均显著高于(P < 0.001)对照并处于同一浓度水平的元素.本研究表明铜可能是导致土壤中抗生素抗性基因增殖扩散的主要因素之一,施加重金属含量较高的粪肥对农田土壤抗生素抗性基因有着长期影响的风险;结果可为农业中的粪肥施用提供新的风险评价参数. 展开更多
关键词 抗生素抗性基因 粪肥 高通量定量聚合酶链式反应 农田土壤
The current phosphate recycling situation in China and Germany:a comparative review
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作者 Qing XUE Xinyue HE +3 位作者 Saskia D.SACHS Gero C.BECKER Tao ZHANG Andrea KRUSE 《农业科学与工程前沿:英文版》 2019年第4期403-418,共16页
Phosphorus(P)is an indispensable element for organisms but the primary source of P-mineral phosphate resources-are non-renewable.Agricultural production has a high demand for fossil phosphate resources,but the resulti... Phosphorus(P)is an indispensable element for organisms but the primary source of P-mineral phosphate resources-are non-renewable.Agricultural production has a high demand for fossil phosphate resources,but the resulting phosphate-rich residues are lack of management.This leads to rapid reserves depletion and severe phosphate pollution risks.One sustainable way is to reuse the phosphate dispersed in various residues such as sewage sludge and livestock manure.Diverse techniques have emerged to recover phosphate from wastes to close the phosphate cycle.While it is a global issue,the regional situations regarding potential phosphate scarcity and its management differ strongly.China is rich in phosphate resources,but over-exploitation has greatly increased the risk of phosphate rocks depletion,while in Germany the P resources depend on imports,but there is commitment to keep a balance between import and utilization.This had led to great differences in the way the two countries deal with the"re-use"of phosphate in waste.China is now in a transition phase from the simple terminal pollution control to"waste"reuse and nutrient resources recycling.One sign of this tendency is the mandatory garbage classification and preparation for further processing and recycling.This was first implemented in Shanghai in 2019,whereas Germany has been following the legal framework for waste management since the 19 th century.There are a series of laws to control the nutrient loss from municipal and agricultural activities,as for instance with sewage sludge ordinance and fertilizer legislation.Many of these laws have been newly revised recently.Sewage sludge cannot be directly utilized on farmland as organic fertilizer any more.Alternatively,phosphate and other nutrients should be recovered from sewage sludge.Advanced phosphate recovery technologies and related nutrient recycling schemes are proceeding.This review summarizes the current situation of phosphate-containing residues management and phosphate reuse in China and Germany.The state 展开更多
关键词 phosphate recovery MANURE sewage sludge ordinances technologies
Comparison of analytical procedures for measuring phosphorus content of animal manures in China
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作者 Guohua LI Qian LIU +1 位作者 Haigang LI Fusuo ZHANG 《农业科学与工程前沿:英文版》 2019年第4期431-440,共10页
The concentration and components of manure phosphorus(P)are key factors determining potential P bioavailability and runoff.The distribution of P forms in swine,poultry and cattle manures collected from intensive and e... The concentration and components of manure phosphorus(P)are key factors determining potential P bioavailability and runoff.The distribution of P forms in swine,poultry and cattle manures collected from intensive and extensive production systems in several areas of China was investigated with sequential fractionation and a simplified two-step(NaHCO3-NaOH/EDTA)procedures.The mean total P concentration,determined by the sequential fractionation procedure of intensive swine,poultry and cattle manure,expressed as g·kg–1,was 14.9,13.4 and 5.8 g·kg–1,respectively,and 4.4 g·kg–1 in extensive cattle manure.In intensive swine,poultry and cattle manure about 73%,74%and 79%of total P,respectively,was bioavailable(i.e.,P extracted by H2O and NaHCO3)and 78%in extensive cattle manure.The results indicated the relative environmental risk,from high to low,of swine,poultry and cattle manure.There is considerable regional variation in animal manure P across China,which needs to be considered when developing manure management strategies. 展开更多
关键词 diet phosphorus manure phosphorus sequential P fractionation
金霉素浓度对鸡粪中温厌氧消化特性及抗生素降解的影响 预览
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作者 强虹 杨祎楠 +2 位作者 李娜 宋亚楠 李玉友 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第10期181-190,共10页
针对抗生素污染对鸡粪厌氧消化影响不明的问题,该文利用批次试验探究了不同质量浓度金霉素(chlortetracycline,CTC)(4~200 mg/L)对鸡粪中温厌氧消化过程、产气效率及抗生素降解的影响。结果表明,低浓度的CTC(质量浓度≤20 mg/L)促进了... 针对抗生素污染对鸡粪厌氧消化影响不明的问题,该文利用批次试验探究了不同质量浓度金霉素(chlortetracycline,CTC)(4~200 mg/L)对鸡粪中温厌氧消化过程、产气效率及抗生素降解的影响。结果表明,低浓度的CTC(质量浓度≤20 mg/L)促进了鸡粪中温厌氧消化作用,其对累积水解、酸化、乙酸化及甲烷化的最大促进率较对照(质量浓度0mg/L)分别提高了12.69%,11.55%,11.31%和9.82%,厌氧消化有效降解了鸡粪中的CTC,降解率为59.87%~71.95%,这是因为厌氧污泥胞外聚合物(extracellular polymeric substances,EPS)由结合态(松散结合态(loosely bound EPS,LB-EPS)和紧密结合态(tightly bound EPS,TB-EPS))转化为黏液态(slime EPS,S-EPS)促进了水解作用,另外,CTC降解提供的碳源进一步促进了甲烷的生成。高浓度CTC(质量浓度≥60mg/L)抑制了鸡粪中温厌氧消化作用,且抑制率随CTC质量浓度的增大而升高,对累积水解、酸化、乙酸化及甲烷化的最大抑制率分别为16.48%,18.54%,18.96%和19.94%,CTC的降解率为43.4%~51.44%;在此条件下污泥EPS较对照提高了13.81%~39.23%,其中EPS蛋白浓度由943.01 mg/L增加为1 083.69~1 338.20 mg/L。中温条件下CTC对鸡粪厌氧消化抑制阈值为22.16 mg/L。消化结束后,沼液和沼渣中的CTC分别占总量的0.46%~3.13%和96.87%~99.54%,表明CTC绝大部分残留在沼渣中,存在较大环境风险,所以应对沼渣进一步无害化处理后才可还田使用。 展开更多
关键词 厌氧消化 抗生素 甲烷产量 金霉素 胞外聚合物
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规模化养猪场粪便贮存方式及土壤承载力
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作者 姜晨润 孙靖博 +1 位作者 李华 罗星 《农业工程》 2019年第1期35-37,共3页
以水冲粪和水泡粪为试验材料,测定其上层和底层干物质、总氮、总磷和总钾的含量,并讨论其含量随时间的变化规律,对粪水进行土壤承载力分析,得到粪水安全施用量和养分消纳所需的土地面积数的计算公式。结果表明,粪水的储存时间为180 d时... 以水冲粪和水泡粪为试验材料,测定其上层和底层干物质、总氮、总磷和总钾的含量,并讨论其含量随时间的变化规律,对粪水进行土壤承载力分析,得到粪水安全施用量和养分消纳所需的土地面积数的计算公式。结果表明,粪水的储存时间为180 d时,总氮、总磷、总钾含量分别平均减少58. 38%、84. 19%和47. 69%;在干物质含量较低的情况下,可根据公式估算某种元素的粪水安全施用量和消纳养分需要的土地面积。 展开更多
关键词 粪水 养分含量 储存时间 土壤承载力
Quality and Crop Yield Potential of Moderately Degraded Alfisols Under Different Nutrient Inputs and Cropping Patterns
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作者 Wiqar AHMAD Farmanullah KHAN +1 位作者 Zahir SHAH Muhammad Jamal KHAN 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期235-247,共13页
Crop performance on degraded soil needs special management practices to overcome soil quality limitations. In a 2-year(from summer 2006 to winter 2007–2008) field trial on a moderately degraded Alfisol in Swabi Distr... Crop performance on degraded soil needs special management practices to overcome soil quality limitations. In a 2-year(from summer 2006 to winter 2007–2008) field trial on a moderately degraded Alfisol in Swabi District(34°7′12′′N, 72°28′20′′E), Pakistan,the effects of three cropping patterns, cereal-cereal(CC), cereal-legume(CL), and cereal-cereal and legume intercrop(CLI), were tested in main plots under four fertilization treatments in sub-plots, including no fertilization(control), farmers’ practice(FP, 60:45 kg ha-1 N:P2O5), recommended dose(RD, 120:90:60 kg ha-1 N:P2O5:K2O), and integrated nutrient management(INM, 20 t ha-1 farmyard manure integrated with 50% N, 100% P, and K of recommended dose), using a split-plot randomized complete block design. The performance of CL was superior than CC in plant height, leaf area index(LAI), cob length, grain yield, biological yield, and grain protein(8%, 26%, 8%, 5%, 10%, and 8% increases, respectively), while CLI confirmed significant improvement only in LAI(25%) over CC. Response to nutrient inputs from all sources was in the order of INM > RD > FP > control, and the maximum net economic return by INM(23% and 2.5 times higher than RD and FP, respectively) indicated severe deficiency of both macro-and micro-nutrients in the soil as well as degraded physical properties. Increases in soil organic matter, total N, total mineral N, available P and K, total porosity, and available water-holding capacity by 6%, 34%, 24%, 50%, 13%, 5%, and 7%, respectively, and decrease in soil bulk density by 4% after four crop seasons indicated optimistic changes in soil quality as a result of the combined effects of fertilization from organic and inorganic sources and legumes within crop rotation. This study suggests that keeping the soil covered under cereal-legume rotation crops all year round and treatment with INM(50% N from organic source and 50% from inorganic source) are the best management practice for sustained production on degraded Alfisols. 展开更多
关键词 CROP rotation CROP performance degraded soil farmyard MANURE integrated nutrient management LEGUME INTERCROP sustained production
不同有机肥与化肥配施对作物产量及农田氮肥气态损失的影响 预览
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作者 李燕青 温延臣 +1 位作者 林治安 赵秉强 《植物营养与肥料学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第11期1835-1846,共12页
【目的】探讨本地区主要类型有机肥与化肥配施对作物产量及农田氮肥气态损失的影响,为不同类型有机肥的科学施用提供理论依据。【方法】2014年10月-2015年9月在山东省中国农业科学院禹城试验基地进行了冬小麦–夏玉米田间小区试验,供试... 【目的】探讨本地区主要类型有机肥与化肥配施对作物产量及农田氮肥气态损失的影响,为不同类型有机肥的科学施用提供理论依据。【方法】2014年10月-2015年9月在山东省中国农业科学院禹城试验基地进行了冬小麦–夏玉米田间小区试验,供试小麦品种为‘济麦22’,玉米品种为‘郑单958’。在常规施氮量(N225 kg/季)基础上,设化肥(CF)、鸡粪(CHM)、猪粪(PM)和牛粪(CM)单施以及化肥分别与3种有机肥配施处理(化肥氮分别占25%、50%、75%),13个处理;加倍施氮量下,有机肥和化肥单施(DCF、DCHM、CPM、DCM)4个处理;1个不施肥处理(CK),共计18个处理。测定了小麦和玉米产量、N2O排放通量和NH3挥发通量。【结果】常规施氮量(N 225 kg/hm^2)下,单施鸡粪或猪粪的小麦、玉米产量与化肥相当,单施牛粪比化肥处理减产。分别与CF、CHM、PM、CM相比,DCF、DCHM、DPM处理无增产效果,DCM处理玉米表现为增产。猪粪和鸡粪与化肥各配施比例处理的小麦、玉米产量间无显著差异,且均与单施化肥处理相当;牛粪与化肥配施处理的小麦产量随化肥配施比例的提高而提高,玉米产量各配施比例处理间无显著差异。CF处理周年NH3挥发量为39.63 kg/hm^2,是单施有机肥处理的37~53倍;单施化肥处理的NH3排放系数接近9%左右,单施有机肥处理的NH3排放系数只有0.2%左右。有机肥与化肥配施的处理周年NH3挥发总量随化肥配施比例增加而明显增加,当化肥配施比例达到75%时,周年NH3挥发总量与单施化肥处理相当。CF处理的周年N2O排放总量为2.85 kg/hm^2,高于单施有机肥处理,三种有机肥N2O周年排放量由大到小依次为猪粪(2.51 kg/hm^2)>鸡粪(1.91 kg/hm^2)>牛粪(1.85 kg/hm^2)处理;加倍施用化肥和有机肥的N2O排放量平均为常规施氮量的1.5倍以上。有机肥与化肥配施的处理周年N2O排放总量随化肥配施比例增加而明显增加,当化肥配施比例达 展开更多
关键词 有机肥 化肥 冬小麦 夏玉米 作物产量 氧化亚氮
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Enhanced Biogas Production from the Anaerobic Batch Treatment of Banana Peels 预览
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作者 Spyridon Achinas Janneke Krooneman Gerrit Jan Willem Euverink 《工程(英文)》 2019年第5期970-978,共9页
Waste disposal management and the energy crisis are important challenges facing most countries.The fruit-processing industry generates daily several tons of wastes,of which the major share comes from banana farms.Anae... Waste disposal management and the energy crisis are important challenges facing most countries.The fruit-processing industry generates daily several tons of wastes,of which the major share comes from banana farms.Anaerobic digestion(AD)technology has been applied to the treatment of wastewater,animal slurry,food waste,and agricultural residues,with the primary goals of energy production and waste elimination.This study examines the effect of organic loading(OL)and cow manure(CM)addition on AD performance when treating banana peel waste(BPW).The maximum daily biogas production rates of banana peels(BPs)with a CM content of 10%,20%,and 30%at 18 and 22 g of volatile solids(gvs)per liter were 50.20,48.66,and 62.78 mL(gvs.d)^-1 and 40.49,29.57,and 46.54 mL(gvs.d)^-1,respectively.However,the daily biogas yield showed no clear interdependence with OL or CM content.In addition,a kinetic analysis using first-order and cone models showed that the kinetic parameters can be influenced by the process parameters. 展开更多
关键词 BIOGAS Banana peels Cow manure Anaerobic treatment Batch test Kinetic study
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我国典型农田土壤中有机物料腐解特征及驱动因子 预览
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作者 马想 徐明岗 +1 位作者 赵惠丽 段英华 《中国农业科学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期1564-1573,共10页
[目的]研究不同有机物料在我国典型农田土壤中的腐解残留率变化。结合气候、土壤等环境因素,阐明秸秆和粪肥在我国农田土壤中的腐解特征及其主控因素,为因地制宜的合理利用有机资源和培肥土壤提供科学依据。[方法]在“国家土壤肥力肥效... [目的]研究不同有机物料在我国典型农田土壤中的腐解残留率变化。结合气候、土壤等环境因素,阐明秸秆和粪肥在我国农田土壤中的腐解特征及其主控因素,为因地制宜的合理利用有机资源和培肥土壤提供科学依据。[方法]在“国家土壤肥力肥效监测基地”中的黑土、潮土和红壤实验站,开展大田填埋试验。有机物料烘干后过2mm筛,置于48μm孔径尼龙网袋后填埋在土壤中。共4种供试有机物料:小麦秸秆(WS)、玉米秸秆(MS)、猪粪(PM)和牛粪(CM)。根据各地温度差异,分别在填埋后49360d内采样6次。通过分析腐解过程中有机碳含量的变化,整合土壤积温与腐解残留率的相关关系,采用VPA(方差分解分析)定量化气候因子,有机物料性质及土壤养分对不同有机物料腐解的相对贡献率。[结果]秸秆的腐殖化系数为11%39%,粪肥的为50%57%,秸秆腐解速率显著高于粪肥,且南方红壤上腐解速率高于北方黑土。地积温方程可拟合有机物料腐解残留率变化,由该方程可知,秸秆和粪肥易分解碳库占比分别为76%和43%,稳定碳库分别为17%和53%。但秸秆和粪肥易分解碳库的分解速率常数(k)无显著差异,其周转积温(1/k)约为14002000℃。物料性质是有机物料腐解的最主要影响因子,贡献率为28%;其次是气候,贡献率为20%。秸秆腐解过程中主要影响因子为气候因子、有机物料性质和土壤因子三者的交互作用,贡献率达42.3%。粪肥腐解过程中主要影响因子为气候因子,贡献率为38.3%。[结论]秸秆腐解速率和其有机碳库中易分解碳库比例明显高于粪肥,秸秆腐解受到气候、土壤和物料性质协同作用影响,而粪肥则受气候因子影响最大。在田间秸秆还田时需结合当地水热条件确定还田时间和还田量,粪肥则建议在还田前进行堆腐,且注意施用时间。 展开更多
关键词 秸秆 粪肥 腐解残留率 气候 有机物料碳库
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微生物活动(蚯蚓粪)对玉米产量的影响 预览
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作者 郭曦瑞 魏梦园 +2 位作者 冯芝琳 李明 黎子仪 《农业技术与装备》 2019年第10期95-96,共2页
东三省是玉米主要产区,土壤肥力退化给玉米种植带来一定的威胁,而土壤微生物活动可以对土壤中的有机质进行分解和转化,提高玉米产量。文章选择东北平原中部公主岭为试验地,分析不同微生物活动对玉米产量的影响,得出添加蚯蚓粪的土地玉... 东三省是玉米主要产区,土壤肥力退化给玉米种植带来一定的威胁,而土壤微生物活动可以对土壤中的有机质进行分解和转化,提高玉米产量。文章选择东北平原中部公主岭为试验地,分析不同微生物活动对玉米产量的影响,得出添加蚯蚓粪的土地玉米产量比只加入优化施肥玉米产量提高6.8%。 展开更多
关键词 微生物活动 蚯蚓粪 玉米产量
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Understanding gaseous reduction in swine manure resulting from nanoparticle treatments under anaerobic storage conditions
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作者 Niloy Chandra Sarker Md Borhan +1 位作者 Ann-Marie Fortuna Shafiqur Rahman 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期179-191,共13页
Manure is an impending source of carbon(C), sulfur(S) and water(H2 O). Consequently,microbial populations utilize these constituents to produce methane(CH4), carbon dioxide(CO2), greenhouse gases(GHGs), and hydrogen s... Manure is an impending source of carbon(C), sulfur(S) and water(H2 O). Consequently,microbial populations utilize these constituents to produce methane(CH4), carbon dioxide(CO2), greenhouse gases(GHGs), and hydrogen sulfide(H2 S). Application of nanoparticles(NPs) to stored manure is an emerging GHG mitigation technique. In this study, two NPs: nano zinc oxide(nZnO) and nano silver(nAg) were tested in swine manure stored under anaerobic conditions to determine their effectiveness in mitigating gaseous emissions and total gas production. The biological sources of gas production, i.e., microbial populations were characterized via Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(qPCR) analysis. Additionally, pH, redox, and VFAs were determined using standard methods. Each treatment of the experiment was replicated three times and NPs were applied at a dose of 3 g/L of manure. Also, headspace gas from all treatment replicates were analyzed for CH4 and CO2 gas concentrations using an SRI-8610 Gas Chromatograph and H2 S concentrations were measured using a Jerome 631 X meter. Nanoparticles tested in this study reduced the cumulative gas volume by 16%–79% compared to the control. Among the NPs tested, only nZnO consistently reduced GHG concentrations by 37%–97%. Reductions in H2 S concentrations ranged from 87% to97%. Gaseous reductions were likely due to decreases in the activity and numbers of specific gas producing methanogenic archaea and sulfate reducing bacterial(SRB)species. 展开更多
关键词 SWINE MANURE Nanoparticles Greenhouse gas METHANOGEN Sulfate reducing bacteria(SRB)
畜禽粪便厌氧发酵过程抗生素抗性基因归趋及驱动因子分析 预览 被引量:1
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作者 支苏丽 周婧 +2 位作者 赵润 杨凤霞 张克强 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期195-205,共11页
针对畜禽养殖业抗生素抗性基因(antibiotic resistance genes,ARGs)污染问题,该文选取厌氧发酵技术,对比不同厌氧发酵体系内ARGs消长与潜在宿主菌,挖掘不同因子与ARGs的相互关系。结果表明,厌氧发酵体系内微生物群落变化是ARGs消长的主... 针对畜禽养殖业抗生素抗性基因(antibiotic resistance genes,ARGs)污染问题,该文选取厌氧发酵技术,对比不同厌氧发酵体系内ARGs消长与潜在宿主菌,挖掘不同因子与ARGs的相互关系。结果表明,厌氧发酵体系内微生物群落变化是ARGs消长的主要驱动因子,确定ARGs的潜在宿主菌是目前研究的难点;抗生素和重金属也是ARGs消长的重要驱动因子,控制抗生素污染和重金属污染可有效减缓ARGs污染;可移动遗传元件在ARGs水平传播过程中起着重要作用。综合而言,厌氧发酵体系内各个因子直接或间接影响ARGs消长,其中工艺参数是控制整个厌氧发酵体系的先决因素,在特定工艺参数下,微生物群落与体系物化指标相互影响与制约;微生物通过分子内部可移动遗传元件实现ARGs在不同微生物之间的水平传播。综上所述,通过综合协调各类因子实现厌氧发酵体系内ARGs消控是今后研究重点。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素 厌氧发酵 微生物群落 可移动遗传元件 驱动因子
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