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文章速递Symbol Error Probability of Incremental Relaying with Distributed/Centralized Relay Selection 认领
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作者 Raed Alhamad Hatem Boujemaa 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第11期141-155,共15页
Abstract:In this paper,we derive the Symbol Error Probability(SEP)of cooperative systems with incremental relaying and Distributed Relay Selection(DRS).The relays remain idle when the Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR)between... Abstract:In this paper,we derive the Symbol Error Probability(SEP)of cooperative systems with incremental relaying and Distributed Relay Selection(DRS).The relays remain idle when the Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR)between the source and destination is larger than T.Otherwise,we activate a relay using DRS.Relay nodes transmit only if their SNR is larger than thresholdβ.If the SNRs of more than two relays is larger thanβ,there is a collision and the destination uses only the received signal from the source.If all relays have SNR less thanβ,no relay is chosen.Thresholdβis optimized to yield the lowest SEP at the destination.Our results are compared to centralized relay selection using opportunistic Amplify and Forward(OAF),Partial and Reactive Relay Selection(PRS and RRS).We compare our results to computer simulations for Rayleigh fading channels. 展开更多
关键词 incremental relaying distributed relay selection centralized relay selection rayleigh fading channels
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Space and Frequency Diversity Characterization of Mobile GNSS Receivers in Multipath Fading Channels 认领
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作者 Peirong Fan Xiaowei Cui Mingquan Lu 《清华大学学报自然科学版(英文版)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2020年第2期294-301,共8页
Diversity reception of multipath Global Navigation Satellte System(GNSS)signals offers a new insight into carrier phase-based high-precision positioning.The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the fading independenc... Diversity reception of multipath Global Navigation Satellte System(GNSS)signals offers a new insight into carrier phase-based high-precision positioning.The focus of this paper is to demonstrate the fading independence between space and frequency diversity GNSS signals.In harsh urban environments,multipath components arrive to the mobile receiver antenna with different phases and Doppler shifts,therefore giving rise to the discontinuity of code and Doppler observations and large tracking errors.In this paper,an empirical model of fading GNSS signals is constructed,including power fluctuations and spread metrics.Based on this model,real BeiDou Navigation Satellite System(BDS)signals from two GNSS dual-frequency antennas are characterized,at both information and signal level.The block processing algorithm is utilized for signal investigation.Results show that:(1)a high proportion of asynchronous loss-of-lock(around 16%)is experienced by observations of diversity signals;and(2)power fluctuations of fading signals are uncorrelated in frequency separated branches unconditionally,yet for space diversity signals the independency exists in dynamic fading channels only.The results above corroborate the significant potential gain of diversity reception,and could be further implemented in researches of diversity combined GNSS parameter estimation in dense fading conditions. 展开更多
关键词 Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) space/frequency diversity RECEPTION power FLUCTUATION FADING CHARACTERIZATION
认知无人机网络中多机协作频谱感知研究 认领
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作者 张宏伟 达新宇 +3 位作者 胡航 倪磊 潘钰 王浩波 《空军工程大学学报:自然科学版》 CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期92-98,共7页
多无人机协同工作模式在未来通信中有着重要的应用前景。结合频谱资源短缺的问题,建立认知无人机网络模型,并研究多机协作频谱感知性能,提出一种最佳融合准则来优化检测性能。针对无人机数量较多的大型认知无人机网络,提出一种快速高效... 多无人机协同工作模式在未来通信中有着重要的应用前景。结合频谱资源短缺的问题,建立认知无人机网络模型,并研究多机协作频谱感知性能,提出一种最佳融合准则来优化检测性能。针对无人机数量较多的大型认知无人机网络,提出一种快速高效的协作频谱感知算法,并比较该算法在瑞利衰落以及Nakagami衰落2种信道环境下的性能。仿真结果表明:①采用最佳融合准则可以使协作频谱感知总错误率达到最小;②快速协作频谱感知算法可以利用较少的无人机来保证协作频谱感知的检测准确度,避免了不必要的感知过程,减少了参与协作频谱感知的次级用户数量,降低了协作感知时间,从而节省了感知过程开销,而且相比于瑞利衰落信道,该算法在Nakagami衰落信道环境下具有更好的性能。 展开更多
关键词 认知无人机网络 协作频谱感知 衰落 错误概率
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从《抵达之谜》看英国殖民统治的衰落 认领
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作者 徐栋 《安康学院学报》 2020年第2期59-62,共4页
奈保尔在其著名的半自传小说《抵达之谜》中向读者描绘了一幅二战结束后英帝国因其由内而外都存在的巨大缺陷,最终不可避免地走向衰败的画面。他将庄园"瓦尔登肖"比作英国社会的缩影,把庄园内的荒废景物当成意象,通过描写这... 奈保尔在其著名的半自传小说《抵达之谜》中向读者描绘了一幅二战结束后英帝国因其由内而外都存在的巨大缺陷,最终不可避免地走向衰败的画面。他将庄园"瓦尔登肖"比作英国社会的缩影,把庄园内的荒废景物当成意象,通过描写这些景物的衰败暗衬日不落帝国的没落。与此同时,作品还描写了外乡人对庄园的入侵和改造,深刻地反映出后殖民时期人口大转移对殖民统治衰落的影响。奈保尔认识到,那个永恒的日不落帝国只存在于殖民者与被殖民者的想象中,事实上,无论多么强大的事物最终都会走向衰落。 展开更多
关键词 《抵达之谜》 英国 殖民统治 衰落
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清代绿釉琉璃瓦的褪色机理研究 认领
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作者 高峰 余佳波 +2 位作者 王菊琳 刘振东 王宗 《中国陶瓷》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第4期43-50,共8页
采用偏光显微、视频显微镜、XRF、SEM-EDS研究了清代绿釉琉璃瓦的褪色现象,并对采用传统工艺新烧制的绿色琉璃瓦进行了酸雨腐蚀试验。结果表明釉表面的Pb元素在环境作用下流失,导致了釉层风化出现孔隙增多现象,同时釉表面的Cu元素流失使... 采用偏光显微、视频显微镜、XRF、SEM-EDS研究了清代绿釉琉璃瓦的褪色现象,并对采用传统工艺新烧制的绿色琉璃瓦进行了酸雨腐蚀试验。结果表明釉表面的Pb元素在环境作用下流失,导致了釉层风化出现孔隙增多现象,同时釉表面的Cu元素流失使得Fe元素的相对含量上升,在Fe、Cu两种呈色化合物的共同作用下,最终使绿釉琉璃瓦表面变成了土黄色。新烧制的绿色琉璃瓦酸雨浸泡试验表明样品发生了酸雨腐蚀,且腐蚀现象为褪色及白色腐蚀产物PbSO4的生成,PbSO4为釉中Pb元素与酸雨中SO42-结合的产物。 展开更多
关键词 琉璃瓦 风化 褪色
BER Performance of FSO Communication System with Differential Signaling over Correlated Atmospheric Turbulence Fading 认领
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作者 Xiaoyan Li Xiaohui Zhao +1 位作者 Peng Zhang Shoufeng Tong 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第4期51-65,共15页
Free space optical(FSO) communication system with differential signaling possesses the advantage of requiring no channel state information and avoiding computational load or link throughput reduction compared to the s... Free space optical(FSO) communication system with differential signaling possesses the advantage of requiring no channel state information and avoiding computational load or link throughput reduction compared to the systems with conventional receivers. In this work, we investigate bit error rate(BER) performance of this system over partially and fully correlated atmospheric turbulence fading. In order to conduct the above analysis, we obtain a probability density functions(PDF) of the channel fading on the differential signals and derive our instantaneous BER using differential signaling scheme. Based on these results, we develop two closed-form mathematical expressions for the average BER under fully correlated and partially correlated fading in the convergent infinite series confirmed by Cauchy’s ratio test. The accuracy of the derived BER expressions is demonstrated by the Monte Carlo simulations, and the analyses for the effects of the system parameters on the BER performance are provided. 展开更多
关键词 free space optical communication BER performance CORRELATED atmospheric TURBULENCE FADING differential signaling
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对数正态分布衰落下的光OFDM水下可见光通信空间分集系统 认领
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作者 蒋红艳 仇洪冰 +3 位作者 何宁 吴越 Zahir Ahmad Sujan Rajbhandari 《红外与激光工程》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期66-72,共7页
水下可见光通信(UVLC)是实现高速宽带信息传输的有效方案,但由于受到信道中吸收、散射和湍流的不利影响而面临着许多困难。针对水下湍流信道中多径和衰落带来的影响,提出了一种光正交频分复用(O-OFDM)等增益合并的分集方案,根据广义的... 水下可见光通信(UVLC)是实现高速宽带信息传输的有效方案,但由于受到信道中吸收、散射和湍流的不利影响而面临着许多困难。针对水下湍流信道中多径和衰落带来的影响,提出了一种光正交频分复用(O-OFDM)等增益合并的分集方案,根据广义的朗伯定律得到信道增益,通过对数正态分布模拟信号衰落。采用蒙特卡洛方法对正交幅度调制(QAM)的非对称削波光正交频分复用(ACOOFDM)和直流偏置光正交频分复用(DCO-OFDM)两种分集系统进行建模仿真,分析高斯信道和弱湍流信道下系统的误比特率,探讨不同分集数目和闪烁系数情况下的分集增益。研究结果验证了分集是降低湍流影响的有效手段,有利于改善水下信息传输性能,为弱湍流信道下正交频分复用可见光通信系统的设计、预测和评估提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 水下可见光通信 衰落 对数正态分布 空间分集 正交频分复用
Integrated energy-oriented cruising control of electric vehicle on highway with varying slopes considering battery aging 认领
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作者 ZHUANG WeiChao QU LingHu +3 位作者 XU ShaoBing LI BingBing CHEN Nan YIN GuoDong 《中国科学:技术科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2020年第1期155-165,共11页
Eco-driving strategies for vehicles with conventional powertrains have been studied for years and attempt to reduce fuel consumption by optimizing the driving velocity profile.For electric vehicles(EVs)with regenerati... Eco-driving strategies for vehicles with conventional powertrains have been studied for years and attempt to reduce fuel consumption by optimizing the driving velocity profile.For electric vehicles(EVs)with regenerative braking,the speed profile with the best energy efficiency should be different from conventional vehicles.This paper proposes an energy-oriented cruising control strategy for EVs with a hierarchical structure to realize eco-cruising on highways with varying slopes.The upper layer plans the energy-optimized vehicle velocity,and the lower layer calculates the torque allocation between the front and rear axles.However,the resulting speed profile with varying velocity may cause a high charge and discharge rate of the battery,resulting in rapid battery fading.To extend the battery life,we make a tradeoff between the energy consumption and wear of the battery by formulating an optimal control problem,where driving comfort and travel time are also considered.An indirect optimal control method is implemented to derive the optimal control rule.As an extension,the control rule for avoiding rear-end collisions is presented and simulated for driving in the real world. 展开更多
关键词 eco-driving electric vehicle BATTERY FADING model dynamic programming ENERGY management
On the Probability of Erasure for MIMO-OFDM 认领
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作者 Kasturi Vasudevan A.Phani Kumar Reddy +1 位作者 Gyanesh Kumar Pathak Shivani Singh 《半导体科学与信息器件(英文)》 2020年第1期1-5,共5页
Detecting the presence of a valid signal is an important task of a telecommunication receiver.When the receiver is unable to detect the presence of a valid signal,due to noise and fading,it is referred to as an erasur... Detecting the presence of a valid signal is an important task of a telecommunication receiver.When the receiver is unable to detect the presence of a valid signal,due to noise and fading,it is referred to as an erasure.This work deals with the probability of erasure computation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexed(OFDM)signals used by multiple input multiple output(MIMO)systems.The theoretical results are validated by computer simulations.OFDM is widely used in present day wireless communication systems due to its ability to mitigate intersymbol interference(ISI)caused by frequency selective fading channels.MIMO systems offer the advantage of spatial multiplexing,resulting in increased bit-rate,which is the main requirement of the recent wireless standards like 5G and beyond. 展开更多
关键词 Frequency selective fading ISI Millimeter-wave MIMO OFDM PREAMBLE Probability of erasure
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探析铝合金阳极氧化膜褪色原因分析及解决方案 认领
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作者 王文杰 《山西冶金》 CAS 2020年第4期118-120,共3页
针对铝合金产品的褪色问题,通过对阳极氧化工艺,着色工艺的分析,以及各工艺的具体参数,对铝合金阳极氧化膜褪色问题进行研究。发现铝合金产品的褪色是由于设备落后、阳极氧化工艺问题以及着色工艺问题造成,并提出具体的解决措施。
关键词 铝合金 阳极氧化膜 褪色 原因 解决方案
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Spatial-Modulated Physical-Layer Network Coding Based on Block Markov Superposition Transmission for Maritime Relay Communications 认领
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作者 Yao Shi Liming Zheng +1 位作者 Wenchao Lin Xiao Ma 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第3期26-35,共10页
As an alternative to satellite communications,multi-hop relay networks can be deployed for maritime long-distance communications.Distinct from terrestrial environment,marine radio signals are affected by many factors,... As an alternative to satellite communications,multi-hop relay networks can be deployed for maritime long-distance communications.Distinct from terrestrial environment,marine radio signals are affected by many factors,e.g.,weather conditions,evaporation ducting,and ship rocking caused by waves.To ensure the data transmission reliability,the block Markov superposition transmission(BMST)codes,which are easily configurable and have predictable performance,are applied in this study.Meanwhile,the physical-layer network coding(PNC)scheme with spatial modulation(SM)is adopted to improve the spectrum utilization.For the BMST-SMPNC system,we propose an iterative algorithm,which utilizes the channel observations and the a priori information from BMST decoder,to compute the soft information corresponding to the XORed bits constructed by the relay node.The results indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms the convolutional coded SM-PNC over fast-fading Rician channels.Especially,the performance can be easily improved in high spatial correlation maritime channel by increasing the memory m. 展开更多
关键词 BLOCK MARKOV SUPERPOSITION TRANSMISSION maritime relay COMMUNICATIONS physical-layer network coding Rician fading SPATIAL modulation
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Sampled-Data Consensus Control of MUSV Systems with Channel Fading and Transmission Delay 认领
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作者 Liyuan Wang Wei Yue Rubo Zhang 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2020年第3期36-45,共10页
This paper studies sampled-data consensus control of a collection of unmanned surface vehicles(USV)operating in network environments with fading channels and time-varying transmission delay.The channel fading is model... This paper studies sampled-data consensus control of a collection of unmanned surface vehicles(USV)operating in network environments with fading channels and time-varying transmission delay.The channel fading is modeled as each independent stochastic process whose probability distribution is known.By considering the effects of channel fading and transmission delay from sampler to the controller,a new MUSV system model is formulated in the framework of network.With the novel established model,stability analysis is given at first,then the sampled-data consensus controller is designed,which also extends to the robust control with wave-induced disturbance.The effectiveness of the presented method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. 展开更多
关键词 CONSENSUS SAMPLED-DATA unmanned surface VEHICLE FADING CHANNEL time DELAY
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各种广告印刷技术制作户外电力设备标志牌性能研究 认领
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作者 刘银 《电力系统装备》 2020年第3期155-156,共2页
本文针对市面上的各种广告印刷技术,研究将其使用在户外电力设备标志牌上的耐日晒性能。研究中的样本分为对照组以及期待组。对照组为实际使用中寿命较短的印刷技术,期待组为其他单位或行业在使用的寿命较长的印刷技术,经过比较给出各... 本文针对市面上的各种广告印刷技术,研究将其使用在户外电力设备标志牌上的耐日晒性能。研究中的样本分为对照组以及期待组。对照组为实际使用中寿命较短的印刷技术,期待组为其他单位或行业在使用的寿命较长的印刷技术,经过比较给出各类印刷技术的对比结果。 展开更多
关键词 电力设备标志牌 褪色 耐日晒 印刷技术 反光膜 搪瓷
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Traffic Modelling of Low Dense Femtocellular Network for Long Term Evolution 认领
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作者 Jesmin Akhter Abu Sayed Md. Mostafizur Rahaman +1 位作者 Md. Imdadul Islam M. R. Amin 《电脑和通信(英文)》 2019年第12期88-101,共14页
One of the features of Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the deployment of femtocells as the underlain cell of a macrocell without any intervention of frequency planning to offload the traffic. In this paper we used Markov... One of the features of Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the deployment of femtocells as the underlain cell of a macrocell without any intervention of frequency planning to offload the traffic. In this paper we used Markov chain to derive the expression of blocking probability for both macro and femtocell in terms of traffic parameters of the network. We developed an analytical model to find the expression of probability of forced termination (FT) using combination of mobility model and probability tree considering low dense femtocellular network. Two different trees were designed: a newly originating call which starts its session in a femtocell and that of in a macro cell. The link parameters of small scale fading of wireless network under Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) are combined with the proposed traffic model to get the probability of FT of a real-life network. A new state transition chain was also developed including its solution for LTE traffic of variable bandwidth (BW) and a comparison was made with Erlang’s traffic model. 展开更多
关键词 RAYLEIGH and Nakagami-m FADING MIMO RB FORCED Termination OUTAGE Probability
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风景中的建筑 认领
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作者 崔愷 《中国园林》 北大核心 2019年第7期5-10,共6页
风景中的建筑不仅为人提供服务,亦不可破坏风景,最好是融入风景,或成为风景中的一部分,甚至自成一景,为风景添上一笔,或成为风景中的焦点。提出本土设计的主张,以若干实践为基础,总结出消隐、分合、顺形、透空、地材、乡土、观望和掩映... 风景中的建筑不仅为人提供服务,亦不可破坏风景,最好是融入风景,或成为风景中的一部分,甚至自成一景,为风景添上一笔,或成为风景中的焦点。提出本土设计的主张,以若干实践为基础,总结出消隐、分合、顺形、透空、地材、乡土、观望和掩映8个关键词作为设计的方向。 展开更多
关键词 风景园林 风景建筑 消隐 分合 顺形 透空 地材 乡土 观望 掩映
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船舶超短波对空电台信道分析与使用策略研究 认领
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作者 陈永锋 吴波涛 +1 位作者 赵孟轩 张昌穹 《电子测量技术》 2019年第5期95-98,共4页
针对船舶在某海域航行中出现的通信距离无法提前判定的问题,在分析超短波传播特性的基础上,建立不同场景下的超短波无线信道模型,包括大尺度衰落的自由空间路径损耗模型、对数距离路径损耗模型和对数正态阴影路径损耗模型,该模型考虑到... 针对船舶在某海域航行中出现的通信距离无法提前判定的问题,在分析超短波传播特性的基础上,建立不同场景下的超短波无线信道模型,包括大尺度衰落的自由空间路径损耗模型、对数距离路径损耗模型和对数正态阴影路径损耗模型,该模型考虑到小尺度衰落的多普勒效应影响,并利用MATLAB软件仿真计算了各模型场景下对电台功率路径损耗的影响。在此基础上,提出计算链路预算方法,依此测算船舶超短波对空电台与飞机进行通信距离的方法以及优化通信链路预算的策略。 展开更多
关键词 超短波电台 信道模型 多普勒效应 衰落
Atomic-scale structural and chemical evolution of Li3V2(PO4)3 cathode cycled at high voltage window 认领
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作者 Shulin Chen Jian Zou +12 位作者 Yuehui Li Ning Li Mei Wu Jinghuang Lin Jingmin Zhang Jian Cao Jicai Feng Xiaobin Niu Jianming Bai Junlei Qi Peng Gao Liping Wang Hong Li 《纳米研究:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期1675-1681,共7页
Here,by using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy,we investigate the structural and chemical evolution of Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) upon the high-voltage window ... Here,by using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy,we investigate the structural and chemical evolution of Li3V2(PO4)3 (LVP) upon the high-voltage window (3.0-4.8 V).We find that the valence of vanadium gradually increases towards the core corresponding to the formation of electrochemically inactive Li3-xV2(PO4)3 (L3-xVP) phases.These Li-deficient phases exhibit structure distortion with superstructure stripes,likely caused by the migration of the vanadium,which can slow down the lithium ion diffusion or even block the diffusion channels.Such kinetic limitations lead to the formation of Li-deficient phase along with capacity loss.Thus,the LVP continuously losses of electrochemical activity and Li-deficient phases gradually grow from the particle core towards the surface during cycling.After 500 cycles,the thickness of active LVP layer decreases to be - 5-20 nm.Moreover,the micromorphology and chemical composition of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) have been investigated,indicating the thick SEI film also contributes to the capacity loss.The present work reveals the structural and chemical evolution in the cycled electrode materials at an atomic scale,which is essential to understand the voltage fading and capacity decaying of LVP cathode. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM-ION batteries Li-deficient lithium vanadium phosphate capacity FADING solid electrolyte INTERPHASE scanning transmission ELECTRON microscopy ELECTRON energy loss spectroscopy
2018:FADING MOMENTUM IN WORLD ECONOMIC GROWTH 认领
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作者 YAO ZHIZHONG 《当代世界:英文版》 2019年第1期11-15,共5页
In 2018,the world GDP grew by around 3.7% measured at purchasing power parity(PPP)and 3.2% if measured using market exchange rate,growing steadily at the same pace as the previous year The world GDP growth rate rose r... In 2018,the world GDP grew by around 3.7% measured at purchasing power parity(PPP)and 3.2% if measured using market exchange rate,growing steadily at the same pace as the previous year The world GDP growth rate rose rapidly from 3.3% in 2016 to 3.7% in 2017,with an increase of 0.4 percentage point.However,this trend of rapid increase in GDP growth rate failed to sustain in 2018.As the world economic growth is losing momentum,world economic growth is likely to shift further to the downside in the future. 展开更多
关键词 FADING MOMENTUM WORLD ECONOMIC
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破解国有企业党建问题中的“痼疾”与“新病” 认领 被引量:2
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作者 张超 《中国井冈山干部学院学报》 2019年第5期105-110,共6页
国有企业党建工作不同程度存在党的领导、党的建设弱化、淡化、虚化、边缘化问题。当前国企党建问题中“痼疾”和“新病”并存,这是由思想认识、体制机制、工作作风、资源保障等诸多问题所引起的。破解这些问题的对策包括:健全完善党建... 国有企业党建工作不同程度存在党的领导、党的建设弱化、淡化、虚化、边缘化问题。当前国企党建问题中“痼疾”和“新病”并存,这是由思想认识、体制机制、工作作风、资源保障等诸多问题所引起的。破解这些问题的对策包括:健全完善党建工作责任制体系,破解“不愿做”问题;探索党委发挥领导作用的体制机制,破解“不会为”问题;推进党建工作与企业中心工作深度融合,破解“两张皮”问题;明确目标,严格标准,破解党建工作发展不平衡问题;充实资源,配强力量,破解党建工作力量配备不足不强问题;集中整治作风,破解形式主义突出问题。 展开更多
关键词 国有企业 党的建设 党的建设弱化、淡化、虚化、边缘化
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Stochastic Iterative Learning Control With Faded Signals 认领
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作者 Ganggui Qu Dong Shen 《自动化学报:英文版》 EI CSCD 2019年第5期1196-1208,共13页
Stochastic iterative learning control(ILC) is designed for solving the tracking problem of stochastic linear systems through fading channels. Consequently, the signals used in learning control algorithms are faded in ... Stochastic iterative learning control(ILC) is designed for solving the tracking problem of stochastic linear systems through fading channels. Consequently, the signals used in learning control algorithms are faded in the sense that a random variable is multiplied by the original signal. To achieve the tracking objective, a two-dimensional Kalman filtering method is used in this study to derive a learning gain matrix varying along both time and iteration axes. The learning gain matrix minimizes the trace of input error covariance. The asymptotic convergence of the generated input sequence to the desired input value is strictly proved in the mean-square sense. Both output and input fading are accounted for separately in turn, followed by a general formulation that both input and output fading coexists.Illustrative examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed schemes. 展开更多
关键词 FADING channels ITERATIVE learning control (ILC) KALMAN filtering mean-square convergence STOCHASTIC systems
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