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Impact of built environment on physical activity and obesity among children and adolescents in China:A narrative systematic review
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作者 Ruopeng An Jing Shen +1 位作者 Qiuying Yang Yan Yang 《运动与健康科学:英文版》 SCIE 2019年第2期153-169,共17页
Background: Neighborhood built environment may profoundly influence children’s physical activity(PA) and body weight. This study systematically reviewed scientific evidence regarding the impact of built environment o... Background: Neighborhood built environment may profoundly influence children’s physical activity(PA) and body weight. This study systematically reviewed scientific evidence regarding the impact of built environment on PA and obesity among children and adolescents in China.Methods: A keyword and reference search was conducted in Active Living Research, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included in the review:(1) study designs-experimental studies, observational studies, and qualitative studies;(2) study subjects-Chinese children and/or adolescents aged≤ 17 years;(3) exposures-neighborhood built environment;(4)outcomes-PA and/or body weight status;(5) article type-peer-reviewed publications;(6) time window of search-from the inception of an electronic bibliographic database to May 31, 2018;(7) country-China;and(8) language-articles written in English.Results: A total of 20 studies, including 16 cross-sectional studies, 3 longitudinal studies, and 1 descriptive study, met the predetermined selection criteria and were included in the review. A total of 13 studies adopted subjective built environment measures reported by parents and/or children, 2 adopted objective measures(e.g., geographical information system, field observations), and 5 adopted both objective and subjective measures. PA behaviors included PA, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, active/passive commuting from/to school, and park visits. Among the 16 studies that provided some quantitative estimates of the influence of built environment on PA and body weight status, all reported a statistically significant relationship in the expected direction. Availability and accessibility in proximity to greenspaces, parks, recreational facilities,and sidewalks were found to be associated with increased PA levels, reduced sedentary behaviors, and/or active commuting among Chinese children and adolescents. In contrast, the absence of bike lanes and living in higher density residential areas wer 展开更多
关键词 Body weight Chinese EXERCISE LITERATURE review Local ENVIRONMENT NEIGHBORHOOD ENVIRONMENT Physical ENVIRONMENT
The response between glacier evolution and eco-geological environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 预览
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作者 Xi-yong Sun Rui-jiang Zhang +4 位作者 Wei Huang Ang Sun Liang-jun Lin Hong-gen Xu De-cai Jiang 《中国地质(英文)》 2019年第1期1-7,共7页
Based on the remote sensing survey and monitoring results of snow lines on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the authors analyzed the following eco-geological factors such as water resources, permafrost, desertification, wet... Based on the remote sensing survey and monitoring results of snow lines on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the authors analyzed the following eco-geological factors such as water resources, permafrost, desertification, wetlands, lake, geological disasters, sea-level rising, earthquake, etc., affected by the change of snow lines over the past 40 years, and discuss the response between glacier evolution and the eco-geological environment preliminarily. 展开更多
关键词 Qinghai-Tibet Plateau GLACIER EVOLUTION Ecological ENVIRONMENT GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT RESPONSE
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Associations between the physical environment and park-based physical activity:A systematic review
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作者 Ru Zhang Hagen Wulff +1 位作者 Yanping Duan Petra Wagner 《运动与健康科学:英文版》 SCIE 2019年第5期412-421,共10页
Background:With an increase in the evidence for the associations between park-based physical activity(PA)and physical environments(especially park and neighborhood environments),researchers face an important challenge... Background:With an increase in the evidence for the associations between park-based physical activity(PA)and physical environments(especially park and neighborhood environments),researchers face an important challenge in interpreting and summarizing the evidence to develop environ?mental change interventions.An updated review is needed to better inform policymaking and environmental interventions.The current study aimed to systematically review the research on the associations of park-based PA with park and neighborhood environmental characteristics.Methods:We targeted English peer-reviewed articles from 5 electronic databases using keywords related to park-based PA,park environments,and neighborhood environments.Of the 4071 identified papers,25 studies published between 2008 and 2016 met all the eligibility criteria and were included in this review.Results:The characteristics of physical environment that received consistent support included paths/trails,lighting,and incivilities(e.g.,broken glasses and litter).Mixed findings were revealed for 6 park environmental factors(unspecified active facilities,playgrounds and skating areas,fit?ness stations,picnic areas,greenness,and park size)and 2 neighborhood environmental factors(park density and park proximity).Conclusion:It can be concluded that paths/trails,lighting,and incivilities are 3 key physical environmental attributes of park-based PA.Given the inconsistent findings on park and neighborhood environmental factors,more robust designs such as prospective investigation are required. 展开更多
关键词 Neighborhood Park-based PHYSICAL activity PARK ENVIRONMENT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Systematic review
An Assessment of Indoor Environmental Quality in School Buildings in the State of Kuwait 预览
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作者 Jamal Al-Hubail Abdul-Salam Al-Temeemi 《建筑与工程前沿研究(英文)》 2019年第2期5-19,共15页
In this study, indoor quality and environmental comfort were investigated in secondaiy school buildings located in the State of Kuwait. Comfort variables such as temperature and relative humidity (thermal comfort), no... In this study, indoor quality and environmental comfort were investigated in secondaiy school buildings located in the State of Kuwait. Comfort variables such as temperature and relative humidity (thermal comfort), noise (acoustic comfort), illumination (visual comfort), as well as allocated classroom floor area per student (spatial comfort) were measured. Data was collected over a 7-month period on a spot basis during school hours in student-occupied classrooms at 46 selected schools. The measured data was then compared to international guidelines and standards related to indoor environment quality. The data for noise and allocated space were shown to be in the comfort ranges in all the schools. However, 11% of the schools are not adequately illuminated, 33% had temperatures not within the recommended limits, and 22% of the schools had humidity levels either higher or lower than the recommended levels. Also, 9% of the schools had low illummation readings. In addition, during the data monitoring, a survey was conducted by which the student occupants completed a questionnaire so that subjective and objective evaluations could be compared. The findings of the questionnaire displayed significant correlations between the measured data and some ailments and other corr^laints experienced by the students. Ultimately, the results found in this research will provide a baseHne for comparison with future indoor environment quality assessments in buildings. Furthermore, recommendations are suggested in order to improve the environmental quality problems encountered in some of the schools, which may be beneficial for policymakers, facilities managers, and design engineers. 展开更多
关键词 BUILDING ENVIRONMENT sick BUILDING syndrome CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT INDOOR physical parameters Temperature RELATIVE humidity Illummation Noise Space density
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变应性鼻炎的遗传学研究现状
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作者 陆美萍 程雷 《山东大学耳鼻喉眼学报》 CAS 2019年第3期36-41,共6页
变应性鼻炎是基因和环境因素共同作用导致的鼻黏膜非感染性炎症性疾病,虽然目前对其发病机制已经有了较深入的了解,对遗传因素的研究也取得了较大进展,但这些遗传相关研究结果仅限于统计学层面,与临床应用还有很大距离。对变应性鼻炎相... 变应性鼻炎是基因和环境因素共同作用导致的鼻黏膜非感染性炎症性疾病,虽然目前对其发病机制已经有了较深入的了解,对遗传因素的研究也取得了较大进展,但这些遗传相关研究结果仅限于统计学层面,与临床应用还有很大距离。对变应性鼻炎相关基因的研究策略、基因与环境的交互作用、变应性疾病基因的重叠、表观遗传修饰及基因的转化研究方向做一综述。 展开更多
关键词 变应性鼻炎 基因 环境 基因-环境交互作用 表观遗传学 精准医学
谈如何提高分析结果的准确度 预览
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作者 邵传贞 张玉翠 +1 位作者 张锋国 信春晖 《酿酒》 CAS 2019年第4期38-40,共3页
任何分析检测实验误差是不可避免的,通过探知影响误差的各类因素及误差出现的规律,采取相应措施减小误差,提高分析结果的准确度,使化验结果尽可能接近客观真实性。从人员操作、仪器设备、试剂溶液、方法、环境五个影响因素来探讨,根据... 任何分析检测实验误差是不可避免的,通过探知影响误差的各类因素及误差出现的规律,采取相应措施减小误差,提高分析结果的准确度,使化验结果尽可能接近客观真实性。从人员操作、仪器设备、试剂溶液、方法、环境五个影响因素来探讨,根据来源采取相应措施来提高分析结果的准确度。 展开更多
关键词 误差 准确度 人员操作 仪器设备 试剂误差 方法误差 环境
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氟喹诺酮类在环境中的分布及去除研究进展
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作者 张君 封丽 +1 位作者 田隽 邹素兰 《环境科学与技术》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第S1期77-84,共8页
氟喹诺酮类抗生素是喹诺酮类的第三代产品,被广泛应用于医疗和养殖。由于氟喹诺酮类抗生素使用量较大,且易被吸附,在环境中的检出浓度均处于较高水平。环境中氟喹诺酮类抗生素的累积对人体健康存在潜在风险,也影响植物的生长、土壤的呼... 氟喹诺酮类抗生素是喹诺酮类的第三代产品,被广泛应用于医疗和养殖。由于氟喹诺酮类抗生素使用量较大,且易被吸附,在环境中的检出浓度均处于较高水平。环境中氟喹诺酮类抗生素的累积对人体健康存在潜在风险,也影响植物的生长、土壤的呼吸和硝化作用等。目前在吸附、光解、氧化、堆肥降解、微生物降解等方面的处理技术研究已取得一定进展,其中微生物降解、光催化、化学氧化法的去除率相对较高、且降解产物的毒性较低,但实际应用到污水处理中还有待进一步的研究。该文对典型的氟喹诺酮类抗生素在环境中的分布、来源、生态毒性的特征及处理技术进行了分析总结,并对后续研究方向进行了展望。 展开更多
关键词 氟喹诺酮 抗生素 环境 污染现状 处理技术
对话与环境:教育意义的迷失与找寻
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作者 位涛 《教育理论与实践》 北大核心 2019年第4期7-11,共5页
人们都生活于意义的世界之中,人与人之间的联系与交流构成了意义生发的基础性条件。在教育的世界中,意义的生发主要是师生之间围绕共同的话题,经由不断的对话,以此实现彼此之间的思维世界向着对方的敞开,让人类共有的知识和文明的累积... 人们都生活于意义的世界之中,人与人之间的联系与交流构成了意义生发的基础性条件。在教育的世界中,意义的生发主要是师生之间围绕共同的话题,经由不断的对话,以此实现彼此之间的思维世界向着对方的敞开,让人类共有的知识和文明的累积注入到彼此的精神空间之中,实现一种生命间意义的连接和释放,提升双方共同朝着更高事物追寻的动力。同时,这种对话也是在一定的环境条件下形成和进行着的。好的环境能够引发师生之间对话持续和良好地进行,保持双方联系互动的紧密性,由此开启实现教育意义的通道。也就是说,在一定环境所包容的空间之中,师生间通过持续不断的对话,向着彼此表达自我、共同提升的过程也就是教育意义生发和实现的历程。 展开更多
关键词 对话 环境 教育意义 教育世界
浅析环境岩土工程问题及预防措施 预览
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作者 梁延平 刘宏宇 孙敏洁 《吉林地质》 2019年第2期95-98,共4页
环境岩土工程问题是面对环境破环时出现的,在第九届国际土力学会议上首次提出,并逐渐被各国接受和完善。近几年来我国工业、建筑业飞速发展,开始对环境岩土工程问题有了更多的关注。本文从地下开挖、建(构)筑物承载、大型基础设施建设... 环境岩土工程问题是面对环境破环时出现的,在第九届国际土力学会议上首次提出,并逐渐被各国接受和完善。近几年来我国工业、建筑业飞速发展,开始对环境岩土工程问题有了更多的关注。本文从地下开挖、建(构)筑物承载、大型基础设施建设、地下水、固体废弃物等几个方面论述了环境岩土工程问题及防治措施。 展开更多
关键词 岩土工程 环境 环境岩土工程问题 预防措施
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论明代文人饮茶的环境 预览
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作者 蔡定益 《农业考古》 2019年第5期41-50,共10页
明代文人持茶具饮茶,十分注重饮茶环境,以营造清雅脱俗的氛围,达到洒脱、率性、怡然的精神追求。文人欣赏的饮茶环境有茶寮、山斋亭馆、僧寮道院以及山水自然等。本文通过明代文人著作(特别是茶书)、诗歌以及绘画,对明代文人追求的饮茶... 明代文人持茶具饮茶,十分注重饮茶环境,以营造清雅脱俗的氛围,达到洒脱、率性、怡然的精神追求。文人欣赏的饮茶环境有茶寮、山斋亭馆、僧寮道院以及山水自然等。本文通过明代文人著作(特别是茶书)、诗歌以及绘画,对明代文人追求的饮茶环境进行了较全面的探索。 展开更多
关键词 明代 文人 饮茶 环境
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既有铁路存在的环境影响及电化改造工程环境治理措施研究 预览
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作者 刘凤 《山西交通科技》 2019年第2期72-74,共3页
为贯彻落实国家能源政策要求,中国铁路总公司决定对全国部分铁路实施电气化改造。铁路电气化改造是适应国家能源发展政策的需要,对于提高铁路技术装备水平,实现铁路现代化建设,节约运营成本,提高效率等方面都有重要意义。以京原铁路电... 为贯彻落实国家能源政策要求,中国铁路总公司决定对全国部分铁路实施电气化改造。铁路电气化改造是适应国家能源发展政策的需要,对于提高铁路技术装备水平,实现铁路现代化建设,节约运营成本,提高效率等方面都有重要意义。以京原铁路电气化改造工程为例,通过分析既有铁路存在的主要环境影响,提出电化改造过程中应采取相应的'以新带老'措施,减少对环境的影响。 展开更多
关键词 铁路 电化 环境 治理措施
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生态学价值视角下的城市河流绿道宽度研究进展 预览
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作者 王芳 汪耀龙 谢祥财 《中国城市林业》 2019年第1期57-61,共5页
城市河流绿道作为河流廊道在城市生态保护方面发挥重要作用,而设置合理的绿道宽度能使河流绿道的生态价值更加凸显,是城市河流生态建设中的重要一环。文章从保土控污、生物保护和改善微气候3方面就绿道宽度对河流生态功能的影响进行综述... 城市河流绿道作为河流廊道在城市生态保护方面发挥重要作用,而设置合理的绿道宽度能使河流绿道的生态价值更加凸显,是城市河流生态建设中的重要一环。文章从保土控污、生物保护和改善微气候3方面就绿道宽度对河流生态功能的影响进行综述,总结当前研究中存在的问题并提出建议,以期为城市河流绿道在城市生态环境层面的规划提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 城市河流绿道 宽度 生态 环境
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Simulated and experimental study on temperature induced lens focal shifts
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作者 刘晓竹 刘丽娜 +3 位作者 周健彪 孙亮 刘英智 梁艳梅 《光电子快报:英文版》 EI 2019年第4期245-249,共5页
Optical lenses used in high temperature environment are usually affected by thermal lenses problems, but it is difficult to evaluate their focal shifts in practical applications. A three-dimensional single-lens model ... Optical lenses used in high temperature environment are usually affected by thermal lenses problems, but it is difficult to evaluate their focal shifts in practical applications. A three-dimensional single-lens model based on finite element solver was built to evaluate the focal shift in this study, when the temperature of surface was raised from the initial temperature to the specified temperature. An experimental method based on a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor was proposed to verify the rationality of the model. The nearly same results between simulations and experiments for N-BK7 and fused silica were obtained, which proves that it is feasible to analyze focal shifts of optical lenses by simulation methods. 展开更多
关键词 SIMULATED EXPERIMENTAL study TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT
Force tracking impedance control with unknown environment via an iterative learning algorithm
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作者 Xiuquan LIANG Huan ZHAO +1 位作者 Xiangfei LI Han DING 《中国科学:信息科学(英文版)》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第5期47-49,共3页
Dear editor,Force tracking control is important for constrained operations. In recent years, impedance control is garnering increasing attention in robot force control. A new two-phase impedance function through null ... Dear editor,Force tracking control is important for constrained operations. In recent years, impedance control is garnering increasing attention in robot force control. A new two-phase impedance function through null stiffness in an original impedance equation to satisfy zero-force tracking error for any environment was presented in (1, 2)Further improvement was performed in (3)。 展开更多
关键词 Force TRACKING IMPEDANCE control with UNKNOWN environment VIA AN ITERATIVE learning algorithm
A novel magnetic silica supported spinel ferrites NiFe2O4 catalyst for heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of rhodamine B
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作者 Jifeng Qu Tinghua Che +2 位作者 Libin Shi Qinghua Lu Suitao Qi 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1198-1203,共6页
A series of spinel fe rrites magnetic nanopa rticles NiFe2 O4 we re synthesized as the heterogeneous Fentonlike catalyst by hydrothermal method and then NiFe2 O4@SiO2 catalysts were obtained by the modification of NiF... A series of spinel fe rrites magnetic nanopa rticles NiFe2 O4 we re synthesized as the heterogeneous Fentonlike catalyst by hydrothermal method and then NiFe2 O4@SiO2 catalysts were obtained by the modification of NiFe2 O4 via micro emulsion method.XRD,VSM,FTIR,SEM,TEM,BET and XPS were carried to analyze the difference between the above two catalysts.NiFe2 O4@SiO2 catalyst exhibited the higher catalytic activity than NiFe2 O4 for the degradation of Rhodamine B owe to the outer Si02 layers surface,the more important is both of them showed the better catalytic performance when at neutral pH environment. 展开更多
关键词 HETEROGENEOUS FENTON-LIKE OXIDATION SPINEL ferrites MAGNETIC Synthesis Neutral environment
论中医健康管理的特点及方法 预览
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作者 项凤梅 《江西中医药大学学报》 2019年第4期95-97,共3页
根据中医理论中养生元素特点,结合现代健康管理的理论要素,总结中医健康管理在饮食、运动、情志、环境等方面的特点,以及管理时点和方法的特性。
关键词 中医健康管理 饮食 运动 环境 时点和方法
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Epidemiology of hepatitis E in South-East Europe in the"One Health"concept 预览
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作者 Anna Mrzljak Petra Dinjar-Kujundzic +5 位作者 Lorena Jemersic Jelena Prpic Ljubo Barbic Vladimir Savic Vladimir Stevanovic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第25期3168-3182,共15页
The significance of hepatitis E virus(HEV)as an important public health problem is rising.Until a decade ago,cases of HEV infection in Eur-ope were mainly confined to returning travelers,but nowadays,hepatitis E repre... The significance of hepatitis E virus(HEV)as an important public health problem is rising.Until a decade ago,cases of HEV infection in Eur-ope were mainly confined to returning travelers,but nowadays,hepatitis E represents an emerging zoonotic infection in many European countries.The aim of this manuscript is to perform a systematic review of the published literature on hepatitis E distribution in humans,animals and environmental samples("One Health"concept)in the South-Eastern European countries.Comparison of the available data showed that the anti-HEV seroprevalence in the South-Eastern Europe varies greatly,depending on the population studied,geographical area and methods used.The IgG seroprevalence rates in different population groups were found to be 1.1%-24.5%in Croatia,up to 20.9%in Bulgaria,5.9-%17.1%in Romania,15%in Serbia,up to 9.7%in Greece and 2%-9.7%in Albania.Among possible risk factors,older age was the most significant predictor for HEV seropositivity in most studies.Higher seroprevalence rates were found in animals.HEV IgG antibodies in domestic pigs were detected in 20%-54.5%,29.2%-50%,38.94%-50%and 31.1%-91.7%in Serbia,Bulgaria,Romania and Croatia,respectively.In wild boars seroprevalence rates were up to 10.3%,30.3%and 31.1%in Romania,Slovenia and Croatia,respectively.A high HEV RNA prevalence in wild boars in some countries(Croatia and Romania)indicated that wild boars may have a key role in the HEV epidemiology.There are very few data on HEV prevalence in environmental samples.HEV RNA was detected in 3.3%and 16.7%surface waters in Slovenia and Serbia,respectively.There is no evidence of HEV RNA in sewage systems in this region.The available data on genetic characterization show that human,animal and environmental HEV strains mainly belong to the genotype 3. 展开更多
关键词 Hepatitis E virus "One-Health" Humans Animals Environment South-East EUROPE
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An experimental study of ultra-high temperature ceramics under tension subject to an environment with elevated temperature,mechanical stress and oxygen
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作者 HAN XinXing XU ChengHai +2 位作者 JIN Hua XIE WeiHua MENG SongHe 《中国科学:技术科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期1349-1356,共8页
Ultra-high temperature ceramic(UHTC) composites are widely used in high-temperature environments in aerospace applications. They experience extremely complex environmental conditions during service, including thermal,... Ultra-high temperature ceramic(UHTC) composites are widely used in high-temperature environments in aerospace applications. They experience extremely complex environmental conditions during service, including thermal, mechanical and chemical loading. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate the mechanical properties of UHTCs subject to an environment with elevated temperature, mechanical stress and oxygen. In this paper, an experimental investigation of the uniaxial tensile properties of a ZrB_2-SiC-graphite subject to an environment with a simultaneously elevated temperature, mechanical stress and oxygen is conducted based on a high-temperature mechanical testing system. To improve efficiency, an orthogonal experimental design is used. It is suggested that the temperature has the most important effect on the properties, and the oxidation time and stress have an almost equal effect. Finally, the fracture morphology is characterized using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the mechanism is investigated. It was concluded that the main fracture mode involved graphite flakes pulling out of the matrix and crystalline fracture, which indicates the presence of a weak interface in the composites. 展开更多
关键词 ultra-high TEMPERATURE ceramics ENVIRONMENT with elevated TEMPERATURE mechanical stress and OXYGEN UNIAXIAL tensile strength orthogonal experimental design
城市老旧社区养老现状分析及对策研究——以杭州市朝晖街道为例 预览
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作者 陈枫 杨红芬 《建筑与文化》 2019年第2期149-150,共2页
城市老旧社区作为国内老龄化程度最严重的区域之一,养老困境亟待解决。笔者通过对杭州市朝晖街道12个老旧社区的实证调查,发现社区养老普遍存在用房资源短缺、设施定位与供给落差、老年人出行困难、设施适老环境营造缺失等问题。在审视... 城市老旧社区作为国内老龄化程度最严重的区域之一,养老困境亟待解决。笔者通过对杭州市朝晖街道12个老旧社区的实证调查,发现社区养老普遍存在用房资源短缺、设施定位与供给落差、老年人出行困难、设施适老环境营造缺失等问题。在审视社区空间资源的基础上,结合街道及社区的负责人访谈,尝试从社区养老设施、住宅、环境三方面提出建议。 展开更多
关键词 城市老旧社区 社区养老 养老设施 住宅 环境
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乘用车舱内环境综合评价方法 预览
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作者 常贺 王丹 许楠 《汽车工程师》 2019年第3期14-16,共3页
车辆乘员舱内部环境的质量与人们的健康息息相关,其评价内容需要随着汽车市场的成熟加以补充、提高和完善,以满足汽车消费者的需求。分析了乘员舱环境的影响因素,结合ASHARE的7点标尺评价准则及当量温度评价方法,提出乘员舱内环境评价... 车辆乘员舱内部环境的质量与人们的健康息息相关,其评价内容需要随着汽车市场的成熟加以补充、提高和完善,以满足汽车消费者的需求。分析了乘员舱环境的影响因素,结合ASHARE的7点标尺评价准则及当量温度评价方法,提出乘员舱内环境评价模型的设想,围绕车内环境的安全性、控制性、舒适性3个层级进行评价。乘用车舱内环境综合评价方法需要进一步细致和完善,以适应乘员对车辆内部环境品质的需求。 展开更多
关键词 汽车 环境 影响 评价
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