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工作记忆内容驱动完全无关刺激捕获注意
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作者 潘毅 张琳 《心理发展与教育》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第5期522-529,共8页
研究通过三个实验以检验工作记忆内容能否自动引导注意选择视场中与之匹配的任务完全无关刺激.实验一要求被试在工作记忆保持阶段完成一个视觉搜索任务,结果发现当搜索序列外的无关干扰刺激与工作记忆内容匹配时搜索绩效显著降低;实验... 研究通过三个实验以检验工作记忆内容能否自动引导注意选择视场中与之匹配的任务完全无关刺激.实验一要求被试在工作记忆保持阶段完成一个视觉搜索任务,结果发现当搜索序列外的无关干扰刺激与工作记忆内容匹配时搜索绩效显著降低;实验二结果表明该干扰效应不能归因于自下而上的启动机制,因为对颜色刺激仅仅进行知觉辨认而没有工作记忆加工时并没有产生启动效应;实验三通过缩短搜索任务刺激的呈现时间以使得被试在完成搜索任务前没有足够时间眼跳至无关干扰刺激,结果发现了与实验一类似的干扰效应,说明在没有眼跳的情况下与工作记忆内容匹配的完全无关刺激可以捕获注意.这些结果表明保持在工作记忆中的信息表征可以自动引导注意选择视场中与之匹配的任务完全无关刺激,为基于工作记忆内容的注意捕获提供了新证据支持. 展开更多
关键词 工作记忆 注意捕获 干扰作用 视觉搜索
The effect of attention to distractor on inhibitory processes in selective attention
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作者 GENG Haiyan SONG Qianlan +1 位作者 LI Yunfeng ZHU Ying 《中国科学通报:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2005年第16期1743-1750,共8页
Selective attention has been viewed as a dualprocess mechanism, that is, exciting targets and inhibiting distractors. Most early studies concentrated mainly on the target-excitation, whereas recent investigations bega... Selective attention has been viewed as a dualprocess mechanism, that is, exciting targets and inhibiting distractors. Most early studies concentrated mainly on the target-excitation, whereas recent investigations began to pay more attention to the inhibitory selective attention mechanism. A measure named negative priming (NP) was extensively employed to probe into the inhibitory processes. The Houghton and Tipper Model put forward a notion: the inhibition that feeds back to the distractor is reactive. That means, the level of inhibition is determined by the activation state of the distractor. Distractors that are more salient and intrude into the control of action receive greater inhibitory feedbacks than less salient distractors. Because increasing attention to an object would enhance the early processing of this object, we thus hypothesized that augmenting the level of attention to a distractor might lead to a higher level of inhibition, revealed as a corresponding augmentation in the magnitude of NP effect. To test this assumption, an object- based identification task was then applied, and participants were asked to make the animate/inanimate categorization. Attention level was manipulated by varying the relative spatial locations of target and distractor (overlapped or separated). A reliable greater NP effect was found in the overlapped than separated condition, indicating that distractors under the high-level attention condition (overlapped) got greater initial excitation, and then evoked greater subsequent inhibitory feedbacks, therefore resulting in a larger NP effect. These results provide direct evidence for the reactive inhibition suggested by the Houghton and Tipper model. Meanwhile a coincident greater positive priming (PP) effect was obtained under the overlapped than separated condition, which could be attributed to the higher level of target activation in the overlapped condition. The covariation of NP and PP effects further confirmed that the way of our manipulation on attention level in this stud 展开更多
关键词 选择性 阴性爆炸物 抑制过程 干涉效果
网络游戏对抗分心物干扰能力的影响
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作者 缪素媚 黄赛 张豹 《中国临床心理学杂志》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2018年第3期432-435,426共5页
目的:探讨不同网络游戏卷入程度对抑制功能中抗分心物干扰能力的影响。方法:采用电子游戏基本情况调查表以及Young所编制的网络成瘾筛查量表与网络成瘾测试,筛选出游戏成瘾组、游戏非成瘾组以及无游戏经验组被试各18名,让其完成Ebbing... 目的:探讨不同网络游戏卷入程度对抑制功能中抗分心物干扰能力的影响。方法:采用电子游戏基本情况调查表以及Young所编制的网络成瘾筛查量表与网络成瘾测试,筛选出游戏成瘾组、游戏非成瘾组以及无游戏经验组被试各18名,让其完成Ebbinghaus错觉任务,用以比较三组被试在抗分心物干扰能力上的差异。结果:(1)三组被试都表现出明显的Ebbinghaus错觉效应;(2)游戏成瘾组的错觉量显著高于非游戏成瘾组和无游戏经验组,非游戏成瘾组和无游戏经验组之间没有显著的差异。结论:在知觉水平的抑制能力上,网络游戏经验对游戏玩家的影响受游戏卷入程度的调节,适当的游戏经验并不会影响游戏玩家的抗分心物干扰能力,但网络游戏成瘾则会损伤玩家的抗分心物干扰能力。 展开更多
关键词 网络游戏 游戏成瘾 抗分心干扰能力 抑制功能
在抑制分心物干扰效应上学困生和学优生的比较 预览 被引量:8
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作者 金志成 张禹 盖笑松 《心理学报》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2002年第3期 229-234,共6页
采用Stroop颜色命名作业,在严格控制各种条件下探究重复分心物的促进效应是由习惯化机制还是由分心物连续抑制机制造成的问题,进而比较学困生和学优生在Stroop干扰效应、重复分心物促进效应和负启动效应上的差异.结果显示,重复分心物促... 采用Stroop颜色命名作业,在严格控制各种条件下探究重复分心物的促进效应是由习惯化机制还是由分心物连续抑制机制造成的问题,进而比较学困生和学优生在Stroop干扰效应、重复分心物促进效应和负启动效应上的差异.结果显示,重复分心物促进效应是由习惯化机制造成的.这种抑制机制,只有在分心物重复条件下才能发挥作用,因而其效用并不广泛;而负启动效应所指的分心物抑制机制却是一种效用广泛的抑制机制.并进而揭示,学困生和学优生都存在重复分心物促进效应,但因学困生的负启动效应比学优生小,所以学困生在Stroop色词干扰效应上大于学优生. 展开更多
关键词 习惯化机制 分心物抑制机制 重复分心物促进效应 Stroop干扰效应 负启动效应
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