Reasons are given for a Doppler shift on the number of observed (sensed) photons in a light beam not just a shift in frequency, also a similar (non-relativistic) effect on the number of observed (sensed) particles (wi...Reasons are given for a Doppler shift on the number of observed (sensed) photons in a light beam not just a shift in frequency, also a similar (non-relativistic) effect on the number of observed (sensed) particles (with non-zero rest mass) in a particle beam. Optics texts have neither effect.展开更多
This paper investigates the effect of differential support settlement on shear strength and behavior of continuous reinforced concrete(RC)deep beams.A total of twenty three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models ...This paper investigates the effect of differential support settlement on shear strength and behavior of continuous reinforced concrete(RC)deep beams.A total of twenty three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models were developed taking into account various constitutive laws for concrete material in compression(crushing)and tension(cracking),steel plasticity(i.e.,yielding and strain hardening),bond-slip at the concrete and steel reinforcement interface as well as unique behavior of spring-like support elements.These models are first validated by comparing numerical predictions in terms of load-deflection response,crack propagation,reaction distribution,and failure mode against that of measured experimental data reported in literature.Once the developed models were successfully validated,a parametric study was designed and performed.This parametric study examined number of critical parameters such as ratio and spacing of the longitudinal and vertical reinforcement,compressive and tensile strength of concrete,as well as degree(stiffness)and location of support stiffness to induce varying levels of differential settlement.This study also aims at presenting a numerical approach using finite element simulation,supplemented with coherent assumptions,such that engineers,practitioners,and researchers can carry out simple,but yet effective and realistic analysis of RC structural members undergoing differential settlements due to variety of load actions.展开更多
A full-scale composite floor plate was tested to investigate the flexural behavior and in-plane effects of the floor slab in a grillage of composite beams that reduces the tendency for longitudinal splitting of the co...A full-scale composite floor plate was tested to investigate the flexural behavior and in-plane effects of the floor slab in a grillage of composite beams that reduces the tendency for longitudinal splitting of the concrete slab along the line of the primary beams. This is important in cases where the steel decking is discontinuous when it is orientated parallel to the beams. In this case, it is important to demonstrate that the amount of transverse reinforcement required to transfer local forces from the shear connectors can be reduced relative to the requirements of Eurocode 4. The mechanism under study involved in-plane compression forces being developed in the slab due to the restraining action of the floor plate, which was held in position by the peripheral composite beams;while the secondary beams acted as transverse ties to resist the forces in the floor plate that would otherwise lead to splitting of the slab along the line of the primary beams. The tendency for cracking along the center line of the primary beam and at the peripheral beams was closely monitored. This is the first large floor plate test that has been carried out under laboratory conditions since the Cardington tests in the early 1990s, although those tests were not carried out to failure. This floor plate test was designed so that the longitudinal force transferred by the primary beams was relatively high (i.e., it was designed for full shear connection), but the transverse reinforcement was taken as the minimum of 0.2% of the concrete area. The test confirmed that the primary beams reached their plastic bending resistance despite the discontinuous decking and transverse reinforcement at the minimum percentage given in Eurocode 4. Based on this test, a reduction factor due to shear connectors at edge beams without U-bars is proposed.展开更多
A composite beam is symmetric if both the material property and support are symmetric with respect to the middle point. In order to study the free vibration performance of the symmetric composite beams with different ...A composite beam is symmetric if both the material property and support are symmetric with respect to the middle point. In order to study the free vibration performance of the symmetric composite beams with different complex nonsmooth/discontinuous interfaces, we develop an R(x)-orthonormal theory, where R(x) is an integrable flexural rigidity function. The R(x)-orthonormal bases in the linear space of boundary functions are constructed, of which the second-order derivatives of the boundary functions are asked to be orthonormal with respect to the weight function R(x). When the vibration modes of the symmetric composite beam are expressed in terms of the R(x)-orthonormal bases we can derive an eigenvalue problem endowed with a special structure of the coefficient matrix A :=[aij ],aij= 0 if i + j is odd. Based on the special structure we can prove two new theorems, which indicate that the characteristic equation of A can be decomposed into the product of the characteristic equations of two sub-matrices with dimensions half lower. Hence, we can sequentially solve the natural frequencies in closed-form owing to the specialty of A. We use this powerful new theory to analyze the free vibration performance and the vibration modes of symmetric composite beams with three different interfaces.展开更多
We report on the concept of an innovative source to produce polarized proton/deuteron beams of a kinetic energy up to several GeV from a laser-driven plasma accelerator. Spin effects have been implemented into the par...We report on the concept of an innovative source to produce polarized proton/deuteron beams of a kinetic energy up to several GeV from a laser-driven plasma accelerator. Spin effects have been implemented into the particle-in-cell(PIC) simulation code VLPL(Virtual Laser Plasma Lab) to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of proton spins in laser-induced plasmas. Simulations of spin-polarized targets show that the polarization is conserved during the acceleration process. For the experimental realization, a polarized HCl gas-jet target is under construction using the fundamental wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser system to align the HCl bonds and simultaneously circularly polarized light of the fifth harmonic to photo-dissociate, yielding nuclear polarized H atoms. Subsequently, their degree of polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. The final experiments, aiming at the first observation of a polarized particle beam from laser-generated plasmas, will be carried out at the 10 PW laser system SULF at SIOM, Shanghai.展开更多
Multi-ring optical vortices are a kind of structured beams that carry orbital angular momentum(OAM) and have concentrical doughnut intensity distributions. In this Letter, we present both theoretically and experimenta...Multi-ring optical vortices are a kind of structured beams that carry orbital angular momentum(OAM) and have concentrical doughnut intensity distributions. In this Letter, we present both theoretically and experimentally a scheme that employs the dimensions of both the OAM states and radial index of multi-ring optical vortices simultaneously to accomplish high-dimensional free-space data coding/decoding transmissions. Such a scheme can further improve the coding efficiency when limited OAM states are available. In the proof-ofconcept experiment, 64-ary coding/decoding employing 16 OAM states and four radial indices are present. Also,the coding/decoding performance when facing various atmosphere turbulences is evaluated. Furthermore, a 64 × 64 gray image(totally, 32,768 bits) is also transmitted through multi-ring optical vortices coding in free-space successfully, showing good transmission performance.展开更多
A comparison of differently polarized Bessel vortex beams propagating through a uniaxial anisotropic slab is discussed in terms of the vector wave function expansions.The magnitude profiles of electric field component...A comparison of differently polarized Bessel vortex beams propagating through a uniaxial anisotropic slab is discussed in terms of the vector wave function expansions.The magnitude profiles of electric field components, the transformation of polarization modes, and the distributions of orbital angular momentum(OAM) states of the reflected and transmitted beams for different incident angles are numerically simulated.The results indicate that the magnitude profiles of electric field components for different polarization modes are distinct from each other and have a great dependence on the incident angle,thus the transformation of polarization modes which reflects the change of energy can be affected largely.As compared to the x and circular polarization incidences, the reflected and transmitted beams for the radial polarization incidence suffer the fewest transformation of polarization modes, showing a better energy invariance.The distributions of OAM states of the reflected and transmitted beams for different polarization modes are diverse as well, and the derived OAM states of the transmitted beam for radial polarization present a focusing effect, concentrating on the state between two predominant OAM states.展开更多
We demonstrate the full vectorial feature of second-harmonic generation(SHG), i.e., from infrared full Poincaré beams to visible full Poincaré beams, based on two cascading type I phase-matching beta barium ...We demonstrate the full vectorial feature of second-harmonic generation(SHG), i.e., from infrared full Poincaré beams to visible full Poincaré beams, based on two cascading type I phase-matching beta barium borate crystals of orthogonal optical axes. We visualize the structured features of the vectorial SHG wave by using Stokes polarimetry and show the interesting doubling effect of the polarization topological index, i.e., a low-order full Poincaré beam is converted to a high-order one. However, the polarization singularities of both C points and L lines are found to keep invariant during the SHG process. Our scheme could offer a deeper understanding on the interaction of vectorial light fields with media and can be generalized to other nonlinear optical effects.展开更多
We propose a method to generate specially shaped high-order singular beams of pre-designed intensity distributions. Such a method does not a priori assume a phase formula, but rather relies on the 'cake-cutting an...We propose a method to generate specially shaped high-order singular beams of pre-designed intensity distributions. Such a method does not a priori assume a phase formula, but rather relies on the 'cake-cutting and assembly' approach to achieve the azimuthal phase gradient for beam shaping, inspired by the orbital motion trajectory change of an artificial satellite. Based on our method, several typical vortex beams with desired intensity patterns are experimentally generated. As an example, we realize optical trapping and transportation of microorganisms with a triangle-shaped vortex beam, demonstrating the applicability of such unconventional vortex beams in optical trapping and manipulation.展开更多
An optimal(practical) stabilization problem is formulated in an inverse approach and solved for nonlinear evolution systems in Hilbert spaces. The optimal control design ensures global well-posedness and global practi...An optimal(practical) stabilization problem is formulated in an inverse approach and solved for nonlinear evolution systems in Hilbert spaces. The optimal control design ensures global well-posedness and global practical K∞-exponential stability of the closed-loop system, minimizes a cost functional,which appropriately penalizes both state and control in the sense that it is positive definite(and radially unbounded) in the state and control, without having to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Belman equation(HJBE). The Lyapunov functional used in the control design explicitly solves a family of HJBEs. The results are applied to design inverse optimal boundary stabilization control laws for extensible and shearable slender beams governed by fully nonlinear partial differential equations.展开更多
High-power orbital angular momentum(OAM)beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances.Utilizing the coherent combination of a be...High-power orbital angular momentum(OAM)beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances.Utilizing the coherent combination of a beam array technique and helical phase approximation by a piston phase array,we have proposed a generating system for a novel high-power beam carrying OAM,which could overcome the power limitations of a common vortex phase modulator and a single beam.The characteristics of this generating method and the orthogonality of the generated OAM beams with different eigenstates have been theoretically analyzed and verified.Also a high-power OAM beam produced by coherent beam combination(CBC)of a six-element hexagonal fiber amplifier array has been experimentally implemented.Results show that the CBC technique utilized to control the piston phase differences among the array beams has a high efficiency of 96.3%.On the premise of CBC,we have obtained novel vortex beams carrying OAM of±1 by applying an additional piston phase array modulation on the corresponding beam array.The experimental results agree approximately with the theoretical analysis.This work could be beneficial to areas that need high-power OAM beams,such as ultra-long distance free-space optical communications,biomedical treatments,and powerful trapping and manipulation under deep potential wells.展开更多
In this paper, correspondence relations between the solutions of the static bending of functionally graded material (FGM) Reddy-Bickford beams (RBBs) and those of the corresponding homogenous Euler-Bernoulli beams are...In this paper, correspondence relations between the solutions of the static bending of functionally graded material (FGM) Reddy-Bickford beams (RBBs) and those of the corresponding homogenous Euler-Bernoulli beams are presented. The effective material properties of the FGM beams are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction. Governing equations for the titled problem are formulated via the principle of virtual displacements based on the third-order shear deformation beam theory, in which the higher-order shear force and bending moment are included. General solutions of the displacements and the stress resultants of the FGM RBBs are derived analytically in terms of the deflection of the reference homogenous Euler- Bernoulli beam with the same geometry, loadings and end conditions, which realize a classical and homogenized expression of the bending response of the shear deformable non-homogeneous FGM beams. Particular solutions for the FGM RBBs under specified end constraints and load conditions are given to validate the theory and methodology. The key merit of this work is to be capable of obtaining the high-accuracy solutions of thick FGM beams in terms of the classical beam theory solutions without dealing with the solution of the complicated coupling differential equations with boundary conditions of the problem.展开更多
We introduce a spectrally resolved Young’s interferometer based on a digital micromirror device, a grating spectrometer, and a set of polarization-modulation elements to measure the spectral coherence(two-point) Stok...We introduce a spectrally resolved Young’s interferometer based on a digital micromirror device, a grating spectrometer, and a set of polarization-modulation elements to measure the spectral coherence(two-point) Stokes parameters of random light beams. An experimental demonstration is provided with a spatially partially coherent superluminescent diode amounting to a complex structure of spatio-spectral coherence induced by a quartzwedge depolarizer. We also show that the polarization and spatial coherence of light can vary with wavelength on a subnanometer scale. The technique is simple and robust and applies to light beams with any spectral bandwidth.展开更多
With the increasing demands for remote spectroscopy in many fields ranging from homeland security to environmental monitoring, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has drawn a significant amount of attention because of its ca...With the increasing demands for remote spectroscopy in many fields ranging from homeland security to environmental monitoring, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has drawn a significant amount of attention because of its capability to acquire chemical spectral signatures non-invasively. However, advanced THz remote sensing techniques are obstructed by quite a few factors, such as THz waves being strongly absorbed by water vapor in the ambient air, difficulty to generate intense broadband coherent THz source remotely, and hard to transmit THz waveform information remotely without losing the signal to noise ratio, etc. In this review, after introducing different THz air-photonics techniques to overcome the difficulties of THz remote sensing, we focus mainly on theoretical and experimental methods to improve THz generation and detection performance for the purpose of remote sensing through tailoring the generation and detection media, air-plasma. For the THz generation part, auto-focusing ring-Airy beam was introduced to enhance the THz wave generation yield from two-color laser induced air plasma. By artificially modulated exotic wave packets, it is exhibited that abruptly auto-focusing beam induced air-plasma can give an up to 5.3-time-enhanced THz wave pulse energy compared to normal Gaussian beam induced plasma under the same conditions. At the same time, a red shift on the THz emission spectrum is also observed. A simulation using an interference model to qualitatively describe these behaviors has be developed. For the THz detection part, the results of THz remote sensing at 30 m using THz-radiation-enhanced-emission- of-fluorescence (THz-REEF) technique are demonstrated, which greatly improved from the 10 m demonstration last reported. The THz-REEF technique in the counter-propagation geometry was explored, which is proved to be more practical for stand-off detections than co-propagation geometry. We found that in the counter- propagating geometry the maximum amplitude of the REEF signal is comparable to that in the展开更多
We investigate the incoherent beams with two orthogonal polarizations in nonlocal nonlinear media, one of which is a fundamental Gaussian beam and the other is spiraling elliptic Hermite–Gaussian beam carrying the or...We investigate the incoherent beams with two orthogonal polarizations in nonlocal nonlinear media, one of which is a fundamental Gaussian beam and the other is spiraling elliptic Hermite–Gaussian beam carrying the orbital angular momentum(OAM).Using the variational approach, we obtain the critical power and the critical OAM required for the vector spiraling elliptic Hermite–Gaussian solitons.In the strong nonlocality region, two components of the vector beam contribute to the nonlinear refractive index in a linear manner by the sum of their respective power.The nonlinear refractive index exhibits a circularly symmetrical profile in despite of the elliptic shapes for spiraling Hermite–Gaussian beams.We find that in the strong nonlocality region, the critical power and the rotational velocity are the same regardless of the relative ratio of the constituent powers.The nonlinear refractive index loses its circular symmetry in weak nonlocality region, and the nonlinear coupling effect is observed.Due to the radiation of the OAM, the damping of the rotation is predicted, and can be suppressed by decreasing the proportion of the spiraling elliptic component of the vector beam.展开更多
Thermo-elastic analysis of simply-supported orthotropic laminated beams subjected to high temperature and mechanical load is presented on the basis of the exact two-dimensional thermoelasticity theory.The beam is comp...Thermo-elastic analysis of simply-supported orthotropic laminated beams subjected to high temperature and mechanical load is presented on the basis of the exact two-dimensional thermoelasticity theory.The beam is composed of several orthotropic layers,each with temperaturedependent material properties.The governing equation for each layer is analytically solved using the state space method.The displacement and stress solutions of the beam are obtained using the transfer-matrix method.A numerical example is included to study the effects of temperature on the mechanical responses of a sandwich beam.The results reveal two main effects of temperature:(i)inducing deformations and stresses by itself;(ii)affecting the deformations and stresses induced by the mechanical load.展开更多
文摘Reasons are given for a Doppler shift on the number of observed (sensed) photons in a light beam not just a shift in frequency, also a similar (non-relativistic) effect on the number of observed (sensed) particles (with non-zero rest mass) in a particle beam. Optics texts have neither effect.
文摘This paper investigates the effect of differential support settlement on shear strength and behavior of continuous reinforced concrete(RC)deep beams.A total of twenty three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models were developed taking into account various constitutive laws for concrete material in compression(crushing)and tension(cracking),steel plasticity(i.e.,yielding and strain hardening),bond-slip at the concrete and steel reinforcement interface as well as unique behavior of spring-like support elements.These models are first validated by comparing numerical predictions in terms of load-deflection response,crack propagation,reaction distribution,and failure mode against that of measured experimental data reported in literature.Once the developed models were successfully validated,a parametric study was designed and performed.This parametric study examined number of critical parameters such as ratio and spacing of the longitudinal and vertical reinforcement,compressive and tensile strength of concrete,as well as degree(stiffness)and location of support stiffness to induce varying levels of differential settlement.This study also aims at presenting a numerical approach using finite element simulation,supplemented with coherent assumptions,such that engineers,practitioners,and researchers can carry out simple,but yet effective and realistic analysis of RC structural members undergoing differential settlements due to variety of load actions.
基金the European Community’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFSR-CT-2012-00030).
文摘A full-scale composite floor plate was tested to investigate the flexural behavior and in-plane effects of the floor slab in a grillage of composite beams that reduces the tendency for longitudinal splitting of the concrete slab along the line of the primary beams. This is important in cases where the steel decking is discontinuous when it is orientated parallel to the beams. In this case, it is important to demonstrate that the amount of transverse reinforcement required to transfer local forces from the shear connectors can be reduced relative to the requirements of Eurocode 4. The mechanism under study involved in-plane compression forces being developed in the slab due to the restraining action of the floor plate, which was held in position by the peripheral composite beams;while the secondary beams acted as transverse ties to resist the forces in the floor plate that would otherwise lead to splitting of the slab along the line of the primary beams. The tendency for cracking along the center line of the primary beam and at the peripheral beams was closely monitored. This is the first large floor plate test that has been carried out under laboratory conditions since the Cardington tests in the early 1990s, although those tests were not carried out to failure. This floor plate test was designed so that the longitudinal force transferred by the primary beams was relatively high (i.e., it was designed for full shear connection), but the transverse reinforcement was taken as the minimum of 0.2% of the concrete area. The test confirmed that the primary beams reached their plastic bending resistance despite the discontinuous decking and transverse reinforcement at the minimum percentage given in Eurocode 4. Based on this test, a reduction factor due to shear connectors at edge beams without U-bars is proposed.
基金The Thousand Talents Plan of China (GrantA1211010)Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(Grant 2017B05714)the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (GrantFRF-TP-17-020A1).
文摘A composite beam is symmetric if both the material property and support are symmetric with respect to the middle point. In order to study the free vibration performance of the symmetric composite beams with different complex nonsmooth/discontinuous interfaces, we develop an R(x)-orthonormal theory, where R(x) is an integrable flexural rigidity function. The R(x)-orthonormal bases in the linear space of boundary functions are constructed, of which the second-order derivatives of the boundary functions are asked to be orthonormal with respect to the weight function R(x). When the vibration modes of the symmetric composite beam are expressed in terms of the R(x)-orthonormal bases we can derive an eigenvalue problem endowed with a special structure of the coefficient matrix A :=[aij ],aij= 0 if i + j is odd. Based on the special structure we can prove two new theorems, which indicate that the characteristic equation of A can be decomposed into the product of the characteristic equations of two sub-matrices with dimensions half lower. Hence, we can sequentially solve the natural frequencies in closed-form owing to the specialty of A. We use this powerful new theory to analyze the free vibration performance and the vibration modes of symmetric composite beams with three different interfaces.
基金the computing resources on grant VSR-JPGI61 on the supercomputer JURECA.
文摘We report on the concept of an innovative source to produce polarized proton/deuteron beams of a kinetic energy up to several GeV from a laser-driven plasma accelerator. Spin effects have been implemented into the particle-in-cell(PIC) simulation code VLPL(Virtual Laser Plasma Lab) to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of proton spins in laser-induced plasmas. Simulations of spin-polarized targets show that the polarization is conserved during the acceleration process. For the experimental realization, a polarized HCl gas-jet target is under construction using the fundamental wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser system to align the HCl bonds and simultaneously circularly polarized light of the fifth harmonic to photo-dissociate, yielding nuclear polarized H atoms. Subsequently, their degree of polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. The final experiments, aiming at the first observation of a polarized particle beam from laser-generated plasmas, will be carried out at the 10 PW laser system SULF at SIOM, Shanghai.
基金supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)(No. 11834001)the National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents of China (No. BX20190036)+1 种基金the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2019M650015)the Graduate Technological Innovation Project of Beijing Institute of Technology (No. 2018CX10020).
文摘Multi-ring optical vortices are a kind of structured beams that carry orbital angular momentum(OAM) and have concentrical doughnut intensity distributions. In this Letter, we present both theoretically and experimentally a scheme that employs the dimensions of both the OAM states and radial index of multi-ring optical vortices simultaneously to accomplish high-dimensional free-space data coding/decoding transmissions. Such a scheme can further improve the coding efficiency when limited OAM states are available. In the proof-ofconcept experiment, 64-ary coding/decoding employing 16 OAM states and four radial indices are present. Also,the coding/decoding performance when facing various atmosphere turbulences is evaluated. Furthermore, a 64 × 64 gray image(totally, 32,768 bits) is also transmitted through multi-ring optical vortices coding in free-space successfully, showing good transmission performance.
基金Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant Nos.61801349,61875156,and 61571355)the 111 Project,China(Grant No.B17035).
文摘A comparison of differently polarized Bessel vortex beams propagating through a uniaxial anisotropic slab is discussed in terms of the vector wave function expansions.The magnitude profiles of electric field components, the transformation of polarization modes, and the distributions of orbital angular momentum(OAM) states of the reflected and transmitted beams for different incident angles are numerically simulated.The results indicate that the magnitude profiles of electric field components for different polarization modes are distinct from each other and have a great dependence on the incident angle,thus the transformation of polarization modes which reflects the change of energy can be affected largely.As compared to the x and circular polarization incidences, the reflected and transmitted beams for the radial polarization incidence suffer the fewest transformation of polarization modes, showing a better energy invariance.The distributions of OAM states of the reflected and transmitted beams for different polarization modes are diverse as well, and the derived OAM states of the transmitted beam for radial polarization present a focusing effect, concentrating on the state between two predominant OAM states.
基金This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.91636109,11604050,and 61875242)the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities at Xiamen University (No.20720190057)+2 种基金the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province of China for Distinguished Young Scientists (No.2015J06002)the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (No.NCET-13-0495)the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (No.2016B010113004).
文摘We demonstrate the full vectorial feature of second-harmonic generation(SHG), i.e., from infrared full Poincaré beams to visible full Poincaré beams, based on two cascading type I phase-matching beta barium borate crystals of orthogonal optical axes. We visualize the structured features of the vectorial SHG wave by using Stokes polarimetry and show the interesting doubling effect of the polarization topological index, i.e., a low-order full Poincaré beam is converted to a high-order one. However, the polarization singularities of both C points and L lines are found to keep invariant during the SHG process. Our scheme could offer a deeper understanding on the interaction of vectorial light fields with media and can be generalized to other nonlinear optical effects.
基金National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFA0303800)National Natural Science Foundation of China(11674180,91750204)+1 种基金PCSIRT(IRT_13R29)Higher Education Discipline Innovation Project(B07013).
文摘We propose a method to generate specially shaped high-order singular beams of pre-designed intensity distributions. Such a method does not a priori assume a phase formula, but rather relies on the 'cake-cutting and assembly' approach to achieve the azimuthal phase gradient for beam shaping, inspired by the orbital motion trajectory change of an artificial satellite. Based on our method, several typical vortex beams with desired intensity patterns are experimentally generated. As an example, we realize optical trapping and transportation of microorganisms with a triangle-shaped vortex beam, demonstrating the applicability of such unconventional vortex beams in optical trapping and manipulation.
文摘An optimal(practical) stabilization problem is formulated in an inverse approach and solved for nonlinear evolution systems in Hilbert spaces. The optimal control design ensures global well-posedness and global practical K∞-exponential stability of the closed-loop system, minimizes a cost functional,which appropriately penalizes both state and control in the sense that it is positive definite(and radially unbounded) in the state and control, without having to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Belman equation(HJBE). The Lyapunov functional used in the control design explicitly solves a family of HJBEs. The results are applied to design inverse optimal boundary stabilization control laws for extensible and shearable slender beams governed by fully nonlinear partial differential equations.
基金supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC)(Nos.61405255,61378034,and 11504424)the Graduate Student Innovation Foundation through the National University of Defense Technology,China(No.B150705).
文摘High-power orbital angular momentum(OAM)beams have distinct advantages in improving capacity and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distances.Utilizing the coherent combination of a beam array technique and helical phase approximation by a piston phase array,we have proposed a generating system for a novel high-power beam carrying OAM,which could overcome the power limitations of a common vortex phase modulator and a single beam.The characteristics of this generating method and the orthogonality of the generated OAM beams with different eigenstates have been theoretically analyzed and verified.Also a high-power OAM beam produced by coherent beam combination(CBC)of a six-element hexagonal fiber amplifier array has been experimentally implemented.Results show that the CBC technique utilized to control the piston phase differences among the array beams has a high efficiency of 96.3%.On the premise of CBC,we have obtained novel vortex beams carrying OAM of±1 by applying an additional piston phase array modulation on the corresponding beam array.The experimental results agree approximately with the theoretical analysis.This work could be beneficial to areas that need high-power OAM beams,such as ultra-long distance free-space optical communications,biomedical treatments,and powerful trapping and manipulation under deep potential wells.
基金supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant Numbers 11272278 and 11672260.The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports.
文摘In this paper, correspondence relations between the solutions of the static bending of functionally graded material (FGM) Reddy-Bickford beams (RBBs) and those of the corresponding homogenous Euler-Bernoulli beams are presented. The effective material properties of the FGM beams are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction. Governing equations for the titled problem are formulated via the principle of virtual displacements based on the third-order shear deformation beam theory, in which the higher-order shear force and bending moment are included. General solutions of the displacements and the stress resultants of the FGM RBBs are derived analytically in terms of the deflection of the reference homogenous Euler- Bernoulli beam with the same geometry, loadings and end conditions, which realize a classical and homogenized expression of the bending response of the shear deformable non-homogeneous FGM beams. Particular solutions for the FGM RBBs under specified end constraints and load conditions are given to validate the theory and methodology. The key merit of this work is to be capable of obtaining the high-accuracy solutions of thick FGM beams in terms of the classical beam theory solutions without dealing with the solution of the complicated coupling differential equations with boundary conditions of the problem.
基金Academy of Finland(285880,308393,310511,321066)University of Eastern Finland(930350,931726).
文摘We introduce a spectrally resolved Young’s interferometer based on a digital micromirror device, a grating spectrometer, and a set of polarization-modulation elements to measure the spectral coherence(two-point) Stokes parameters of random light beams. An experimental demonstration is provided with a spatially partially coherent superluminescent diode amounting to a complex structure of spatio-spectral coherence induced by a quartzwedge depolarizer. We also show that the polarization and spatial coherence of light can vary with wavelength on a subnanometer scale. The technique is simple and robust and applies to light beams with any spectral bandwidth.
基金the Army Research Office and was accomplished under Grant Nos. US ARMY W911NF-14-1- 0343, W911NF-16-1-0436, and W911NF-17-1-0428. And we would like to appreciate the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) for supporting Pingjie Huang (Grant Nos. 61473255 and 61873234).
文摘With the increasing demands for remote spectroscopy in many fields ranging from homeland security to environmental monitoring, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has drawn a significant amount of attention because of its capability to acquire chemical spectral signatures non-invasively. However, advanced THz remote sensing techniques are obstructed by quite a few factors, such as THz waves being strongly absorbed by water vapor in the ambient air, difficulty to generate intense broadband coherent THz source remotely, and hard to transmit THz waveform information remotely without losing the signal to noise ratio, etc. In this review, after introducing different THz air-photonics techniques to overcome the difficulties of THz remote sensing, we focus mainly on theoretical and experimental methods to improve THz generation and detection performance for the purpose of remote sensing through tailoring the generation and detection media, air-plasma. For the THz generation part, auto-focusing ring-Airy beam was introduced to enhance the THz wave generation yield from two-color laser induced air plasma. By artificially modulated exotic wave packets, it is exhibited that abruptly auto-focusing beam induced air-plasma can give an up to 5.3-time-enhanced THz wave pulse energy compared to normal Gaussian beam induced plasma under the same conditions. At the same time, a red shift on the THz emission spectrum is also observed. A simulation using an interference model to qualitatively describe these behaviors has be developed. For the THz detection part, the results of THz remote sensing at 30 m using THz-radiation-enhanced-emission- of-fluorescence (THz-REEF) technique are demonstrated, which greatly improved from the 10 m demonstration last reported. The THz-REEF technique in the counter-propagation geometry was explored, which is proved to be more practical for stand-off detections than co-propagation geometry. We found that in the counter- propagating geometry the maximum amplitude of the REEF signal is comparable to that in the
基金Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11604199)the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201708410236).
文摘We investigate the incoherent beams with two orthogonal polarizations in nonlocal nonlinear media, one of which is a fundamental Gaussian beam and the other is spiraling elliptic Hermite–Gaussian beam carrying the orbital angular momentum(OAM).Using the variational approach, we obtain the critical power and the critical OAM required for the vector spiraling elliptic Hermite–Gaussian solitons.In the strong nonlocality region, two components of the vector beam contribute to the nonlinear refractive index in a linear manner by the sum of their respective power.The nonlinear refractive index exhibits a circularly symmetrical profile in despite of the elliptic shapes for spiraling Hermite–Gaussian beams.We find that in the strong nonlocality region, the critical power and the rotational velocity are the same regardless of the relative ratio of the constituent powers.The nonlinear refractive index loses its circular symmetry in weak nonlocality region, and the nonlinear coupling effect is observed.Due to the radiation of the OAM, the damping of the rotation is predicted, and can be suppressed by decreasing the proportion of the spiraling elliptic component of the vector beam.
基金This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51778289)the Transportation Science and Technology Project of Jiangsu Province(2014Y01)the Science and Technology Plan Project of Jiangsu Province(BY2016005-12).
文摘Thermo-elastic analysis of simply-supported orthotropic laminated beams subjected to high temperature and mechanical load is presented on the basis of the exact two-dimensional thermoelasticity theory.The beam is composed of several orthotropic layers,each with temperaturedependent material properties.The governing equation for each layer is analytically solved using the state space method.The displacement and stress solutions of the beam are obtained using the transfer-matrix method.A numerical example is included to study the effects of temperature on the mechanical responses of a sandwich beam.The results reveal two main effects of temperature:(i)inducing deformations and stresses by itself;(ii)affecting the deformations and stresses induced by the mechanical load.