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tRNA cleavage:a new insight 预览
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作者 Sherif Rashad Kuniyasu Niizuma Teiji Tominaga 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期47-52,共6页
Over the past decades,tRNA was found to be a rich hub of RNA modifications such as 1-methyladenosine and 5-methycytosine modifications and others,holding more than half of all modifications occurring in RNA molecules.... Over the past decades,tRNA was found to be a rich hub of RNA modifications such as 1-methyladenosine and 5-methycytosine modifications and others,holding more than half of all modifications occurring in RNA molecules.Moreover,tRNA was discovered to be a source of various small noncoding RNA species,such as the stress induced angiogenin cleaved tRNA halves(tiRNA)or the miRNA like tRNA derived fragments.tRNA cleavage under stress was fist discovered in bacteria and later was found to be conserved across different species,including mammals.Under cellular stress conditions,tRNA undergoes conformational changes and angiogenin cleaves it into 3′and 5′halves.5′tiRNA halves were shown to repress protein translations.tRNA cleavage is thought of to be a cytoprotective mechanism by which cells evade apoptosis,however some data hints to the opposite;that tiRNA are cytotoxic or at least related to apoptosis initiation.tRNA cleavage also was shown to be affected by tRNA modifications via different enzymes in the cytosol and mitochondria.In this review,we will highlight the biology of tRNA cleavage,show the evidence of it being cytoprotective or a marker of cell death and shed a light on its role in disease models and human diseases as well as possible future directions in this field of RNA research. 展开更多
关键词 ANGIOGENIN apoptosis cell STRESS RNA modification STRESS GRANULES stroke tiRNA translation REPRESSION TRNA TRNA CLEAVAGE
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Taking central nervous system regenerative therapies to the clinic:curing rodents versus nonhuman primates versus humans 预览
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作者 Magdalini Tsintou Kyriakos Dalamagkas Nikos Makris 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期425-437,共13页
The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of ef... The central nervous system is known to have limited regenerative capacity.Not only does this halt the human body’s reparative processes after central nervous system lesions,but it also impedes the establishment of effective and safe therapeutic options for such patients.Despite the high prevalence of stroke and spinal cord injury in the general population,these conditions remain incurable and place a heavy burden on patients’families and on society more broadly.Neuroregeneration and neural engineering are diverse biomedical fields that attempt reparative treatments,utilizing stem cells-based strategies,biologically active molecules,nanotechnology,exosomes and highly tunable biodegradable systems(e.g.,certain hydrogels).Although there are studies demonstrating promising preclinical results,safe clinical translation has not yet been accomplished.A key gap in clinical translation is the absence of an ideal animal or ex vivo model that can perfectly simulate the human microenvironment,and also correspond to all the complex pathophysiological and neuroanatomical factors that affect functional outcomes in humans after central nervous system injury.Such an ideal model does not currently exist,but it seems that the nonhuman primate model is uniquely qualified for this role,given its close resemblance to humans.This review considers some regenerative therapies for central nervous system repair that hold promise for future clinical translation.In addition,it attempts to uncover some of the main reasons why clinical translation might fail without the implementation of nonhuman primate models in the research pipeline. 展开更多
关键词 animal models central nervous system regeneration clinical translation exosomes HYDROGELS neural tissue engineering nonhuman PRIMATES spinal cord injury stem cells stroke
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马克思主义中国化进程译介源头探析
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作者 方红 《中国翻译》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第6期61-68,191,共9页
马克思主义最初进入中国载于传教士创刊出版的《万国公报》及《大同学》一书,其间接、零碎的译介究竟源于何处及其如何被选择译入近代中国尤其值得关注。本文基于史料梳理和文本对比,考察马克思主义初入中国的翻译路径及翻译选择的背景... 马克思主义最初进入中国载于传教士创刊出版的《万国公报》及《大同学》一书,其间接、零碎的译介究竟源于何处及其如何被选择译入近代中国尤其值得关注。本文基于史料梳理和文本对比,考察马克思主义初入中国的翻译路径及翻译选择的背景和策略。研究发现,初入中国的马克思主义思想片段是经由原作者与译者双重选择后的科学社会主义思想,其译介模式对马克思主义在中国的早期传播具有导向意义。马克思主义初入中国带有思想译介初期的普遍特征,其翻译选择及策略具有本土化意义内涵。 展开更多
关键词 马克思主义 译介源头 翻译选择 译介影响
《中国丛报》的文化特色词译介
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作者 陈顺意 《中国科技翻译》 北大核心 2019年第3期56-59,共4页
The Chinese Repository(中国丛报)是西方传教士在华创办的第一份英文报纸。该报全面介绍和报道了中国的政治、经济、军事、社会、文化、地理、宗教等,为西方读者了解中国提供了重要的信息源。该报的中国文化特色词译介对后世产生了重... The Chinese Repository(中国丛报)是西方传教士在华创办的第一份英文报纸。该报全面介绍和报道了中国的政治、经济、军事、社会、文化、地理、宗教等,为西方读者了解中国提供了重要的信息源。该报的中国文化特色词译介对后世产生了重要影响。本文通过从《中国丛报》收集大量的中国文化特色词英译文,探讨其翻译方法及影响,以期对中国文化译介提供一些参考。 展开更多
关键词 中国丛报 中国文化特色词 译介 义译 直译
The Differences between Chinese and Western Culture in Advertisement and Translating Strategies 预览
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作者 赖康生 CHEN Jing-ming 《海外英语》 2019年第10期48-50,共3页
Based on the analysis of differences of thinking way, value and aesthetics psychology between China and western countries, this paper puts forward relative advertisement translation strategies to solve the problem of ... Based on the analysis of differences of thinking way, value and aesthetics psychology between China and western countries, this paper puts forward relative advertisement translation strategies to solve the problem of deficit in translating advertisements caused by the cultural differences. 展开更多
关键词 ADVERTISING TRANSLATION CULTURAL DIFFERENCES TRANSLATION STRATEGIES
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中国文化“走出去”视域下中医药典籍在海外的译介研究 预览
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作者 王尔亮 陈晓 《中国出版史研究》 2019年第3期22-31,共10页
中医药的对外交流始于汉唐,而中医药典籍的对外传播盛于明清。从明清时期的传教士对中医经典医籍的英译到当今中医典籍在海内外的广泛传播,中医药典籍的译介发生了巨大的转变。从出版史的角度对中医药典籍译介的出版历史、发展历程、发... 中医药的对外交流始于汉唐,而中医药典籍的对外传播盛于明清。从明清时期的传教士对中医经典医籍的英译到当今中医典籍在海内外的广泛传播,中医药典籍的译介发生了巨大的转变。从出版史的角度对中医药典籍译介的出版历史、发展历程、发展现状进行梳理,希冀推进中医药典籍在海外的传播,助力中国文化“走出去”,为中医药典籍的国际化出版与中西医学交流产生积极的影响。 展开更多
关键词 中医药典籍 译介 翻译史 对外交流 经典 文献研究
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希腊国名汉译探源
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作者 王文华 《翻译界》 2019年第1期113-126,共14页
希腊国名的汉译史从一个侧面反映了中国西学东渐的历史进程。欧洲语言指称希腊国名的词语普遍采自拉丁文Graeci,但汉语用'希腊'来与其对应。这一汉译既非其意译亦非音译,实为希腊语自称之词Hellas音译的'张冠李戴'。本... 希腊国名的汉译史从一个侧面反映了中国西学东渐的历史进程。欧洲语言指称希腊国名的词语普遍采自拉丁文Graeci,但汉语用'希腊'来与其对应。这一汉译既非其意译亦非音译,实为希腊语自称之词Hellas音译的'张冠李戴'。本文通过查阅相关文献资料,分别考察了欧语中Graeci、Hellas名称的由来、演变及其汉语诸种音译'厄勒祭亚'、'额利西'、'希腊'的历史演变,认为汉译名'厄勒祭亚'早在十六世纪末甚至十五世纪中叶既已使用,而'额利西'和'希腊'则至少在1830年代就已较为通行,此后'希腊'历经百年发展取代'额利西'成为现代汉语指称希腊国名的唯一定名。 展开更多
关键词 专有名词 术语 词源 翻译 汉译
Emotion,Metaphor and Translation:A Case Study on the English Version of A Dream of Red Mansions 预览
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作者 Wu Ni 《学术界》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第7期225-234,共10页
Emotional metaphors abound in the original works and translations of A Dream of Red Mansions. Based on statistical analysis,a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods are utilized from the perspect... Emotional metaphors abound in the original works and translations of A Dream of Red Mansions. Based on statistical analysis,a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods are utilized from the perspective of cognitive linguistics to study the emotional metaphors appearing in the first 50 chapters of the novel and their corresponding English translations by Hawkes and the Yang couple.To generalize rules in the translation of emotional metaphors,the emotional metaphor of “Qi” is taken as an example by calculating the ratios of each kind of emotional metaphors and the frequencies of translation methods adopted.The findings suggest that when translating emotional metaphors,translators have selected their strategies from cognitive perspectives to achieve equivalence between the source language and the target language despite some challenges and restrictions.It is thus concluded that the emotional metaphor in the novel cannot be translated directly but can be approached through selection of appropriate translation methods including meaning transfer,meaning deviation and metaphor omission. 展开更多
关键词 EMOTIONAL METAPHORS A DREAM of Red Mansions TRANSLATION methods TRANSLATION process
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A Comparative Study of the Translation of English and Chinese idioms 预览
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作者 Xu Jing 《校园英语》 2019年第30期242-243,共2页
Idiom refers to fixed phrase or short sentence extracted from social practice for a long time. It is created by people of all nationalities in the long-term use of language. Thus, idioms often have strong national, hi... Idiom refers to fixed phrase or short sentence extracted from social practice for a long time. It is created by people of all nationalities in the long-term use of language. Thus, idioms often have strong national, historical and local color and carry profound cultural connotations. This paper, through the analysis of the cultural differences between China and foreign countries, tries to find a solution to the translation of Chinese and English idioms. 展开更多
关键词 IDIOM TRANSLATION CULTURAL DIFFERENCES TRANSLATION METHODS
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On Translation of Rhetorical Devices in Chinese Translation of The Bridges of Madison County 预览
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作者 ZUO Xiao-yan 《海外英语》 2019年第14期11-13,共3页
The most evident linguistic feature of The Bridges of Madison County is the extensive use of rhetorical devices to strength-en the aesthetics of language, so rhetorical translation exerts an influence, to a certain ex... The most evident linguistic feature of The Bridges of Madison County is the extensive use of rhetorical devices to strength-en the aesthetics of language, so rhetorical translation exerts an influence, to a certain extent, on the linguistic beauty of its transla-tions. Here it cites examples from the original book and Zi Zhongyun’s Chinese translation, analyzing and summarizing translationmethods of rhetorical devices used by the translator in her translation. It is concluded that main methods of rhetorical translationare literal translation of rhetoric, rhetorical omission and rhetorical shift, making an attempt to add new content for relevant studiesof this Chinese translation. 展开更多
关键词 CHINESE TRANSLATION of The BRIDGES of Madison COUNTY RHETORICAL DEVICES TRANSLATION method
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A General Study on English Film Title Translation from the Perspective of Skopostheorie 预览
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作者 贺静 《读与写(教师)》 2019年第10期0292-0293,共2页
Translation is believed to have exerted an essential impact in the introduction of the English movies. However, being a special field of translation, film translation is far from being paid adequate emphasis, let alon... Translation is believed to have exerted an essential impact in the introduction of the English movies. However, being a special field of translation, film translation is far from being paid adequate emphasis, let alone the film title translation. The thesis is expected to investigate the undeniable value of the film title translation in the light of Skopostheorie, discussing and comparing the different translation methods applied in the distinct translation versions. 展开更多
关键词 FILM TITLE TRANSLATION Skopostheorie TRANSLATION METHODS
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A Study on English Translation Strategies of Chinese Cuisines 预览
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作者 谢晓 《海外英语》 2019年第3期175-175,177共2页
With the further expansion of foreign trade and the deepening of globalization,China is having increasingly frequent international exchanges.Therefore,the accurate translation of Chinese cuisines plays an important ro... With the further expansion of foreign trade and the deepening of globalization,China is having increasingly frequent international exchanges.Therefore,the accurate translation of Chinese cuisines plays an important role in the spread of Chinese dietary culture.Various dishes have their own evaluation standards and distinctive national characteristics.The translation of Chinese food names into English is an important part of the publicity work of Chinese food culture.Therefore,some translation problems of Chinese food are illustrated here with examples and several strategies are clarified for references. 展开更多
关键词 TRANSLATION CHINESE Cuisines TRANSLATION PROBLEMS STRATEGIES
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Poetry Translation and Cultural Transmission—the English Version of the Classical Chinese Poem“Bring in the Wine” 预览
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作者 LIU Yuan-yuan 《海外英语》 2019年第14期45-46,共2页
This article,based on the English version of Li Bai's Classical Chinese Poem“Bring in the Wine”,explores the important position of cultural transmission in the English translation of the Classical Chinese Poem t... This article,based on the English version of Li Bai's Classical Chinese Poem“Bring in the Wine”,explores the important position of cultural transmission in the English translation of the Classical Chinese Poem through the comparison of the cultural translation,and finally draws the rationality and feasibility of the creative translation techniques in the English translation of the Classical Chinese Poems.It points out that the alienation of the Chinese culture's external communication has ignored the reader's cultural acceptance ability and position of the western countries and regions dominated by the foreign countries.It is believed that in a long period of time,Chinese culture needs the translation of Chinese translators to dissimilation,the translation of foreign sinologists,domestication,and alienation,to meet the needs of different types of readers and to promote the Chinese culture to go out. 展开更多
关键词 English TRANSLATION of classical poetry cultural transmission Li BAI “Bring in the Wine” creative TRANSLATION FOREIGNIZATION DOMESTICATION
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Legal Translation under Gideon Toury’s Translation Norms 预览
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作者 杨春瑾 《校园英语》 2019年第18期226-227,共2页
This article mainly c onducts a diachr onic study on the Chinese-English texts of the Criminal Procedure Law of the P eople’s Republic of China and it s amendments under the guidance of Gideon Toury’s translation no... This article mainly c onducts a diachr onic study on the Chinese-English texts of the Criminal Procedure Law of the P eople’s Republic of China and it s amendments under the guidance of Gideon Toury’s translation norms. 展开更多
关键词 LEGAL TEXT TRANSLATION norms TRANSLATION STRATEGIES
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A New Probe Into Translation Teaching From the Perspective of Context 预览
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作者 MA Yanling 《中美英语教学:英文版》 2019年第11期445-451,共7页
Translation,as a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural communication activity,is closely related to context,so context is an essential factor in translation teaching.In traditional translation teaching,students’context... Translation,as a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural communication activity,is closely related to context,so context is an essential factor in translation teaching.In traditional translation teaching,students’contextual awareness is weak,and there are few translation practice opportunities for students.As a result,many students’translation level fails to meet the basic requirements of the market.This paper attempts to introduce the concepts and theories of context into translation teaching,and then to explore the reforms and attempts that need to be made in translation teaching after the combination of context and translation teaching.It also stresses that translation teachers are required to face new challenges and requirements coming from translation textbooks,teaching contents,and the creation of context,and to have a contextual perspective so as to achieve effective translation teaching. 展开更多
关键词 CONTEXT translation teaching translation talents
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公示语外译地方与国家标准的定名及词语译法辨析
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作者 任林静 吕和发 《标准科学》 2019年第9期66-73,共8页
本文归纳总结了公示语外译地方与国家标准名称用语的选取和演进规律;辨析了地方和国家标准用名关键词语“公共场所”与“公共服务领域”,“标识”与“标志”,“翻译”与“译写”,“标准”与“规范”的异同;指出“公示语”这一概念从推... 本文归纳总结了公示语外译地方与国家标准名称用语的选取和演进规律;辨析了地方和国家标准用名关键词语“公共场所”与“公共服务领域”,“标识”与“标志”,“翻译”与“译写”,“标准”与“规范”的异同;指出“公示语”这一概念从推出到广为社会各界接纳是自觉约定俗成的结果,地标、国标定名选词要严格遵循约定俗成法则,进而有效传播与普及标准、规范,精准发挥其在跨文化交流中的指导与制约功用。通过对部分译写原则与词语译法的解析,明确提出公示语汉英译写不应仅拘泥于对原规则、原语原意的“忠实”,更应以跨文化交际有效性为宗旨,精准服务于现实国家发展、语境实况与受众需求。 展开更多
关键词 公示语 翻译 地方与国家标准 定名 词语译法 辨析
On Annotation in Subtitle Translation Under Relevance Translation Theory —A Case Study of The Big Bang Theory Season One to Four 预览
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作者 竺琦玫 《海外英语》 2019年第5期164-165,共2页
Annotations in the subtitle translation of The Big Bang Theory season one to four can be categorized into cultural and linguistic phenomena. Guided by relevance translation theory, translation should achieve the bigge... Annotations in the subtitle translation of The Big Bang Theory season one to four can be categorized into cultural and linguistic phenomena. Guided by relevance translation theory, translation should achieve the biggest contextual effects with the least processing efforts by audience. It is argued that annotations intensify contextual effects by providing information and characterization. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether these annotations reduce the audience’s efforts to comprehend. 展开更多
关键词 ANNOTATION SUBTITLE TRANSLATION relevance TRANSLATION THEORY The Big Bang THEORY CONTEXTUAL effects processing EFFORTS
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Translation of Four-Chinese-Character Structures—With the Report at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China as Case Study 预览
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作者 龚佳玉 《海外英语》 2019年第7期159-163,共5页
Chinese is featured with four-Chinese-character structures. These forms are typical in pattern, sound and meaning delivery. The thesis, therefore, with classifications of the four-Chinese-character structures in the l... Chinese is featured with four-Chinese-character structures. These forms are typical in pattern, sound and meaning delivery. The thesis, therefore, with classifications of the four-Chinese-character structures in the latest 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, attempts to analyze translation methods such as literal translation and liberal translation as well as translation techniques such as combination, shift, addition and omission. It is concluded that dominant methods or techniques are adopted in translating corresponding types of four-Chinese-character structures. In this sense, not only guidance for translation practice in political regard is offered but also a further understanding of translation methods and techniques can be gained. 展开更多
关键词 four-Chinese-character structures the 19th NATIONAL CONGRESS of the COMMUNIST Party of China TRANSLATION methods TRANSLATION techniques
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译者的时代感影响着其翻译策略 预览
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作者 周小英 《科教文汇》 2019年第28期184-185,共2页
翻译是一种语言对另一种语言的释义,是将一种特定社会文化背景中言语的意义与内涵再现于另一种社会文化背景之中的行为。将同一篇文章或句子,不同的译者对翻译策略的选择也不尽相同。生活在两种不同语言文化环境中的人,其民族心理、思... 翻译是一种语言对另一种语言的释义,是将一种特定社会文化背景中言语的意义与内涵再现于另一种社会文化背景之中的行为。将同一篇文章或句子,不同的译者对翻译策略的选择也不尽相同。生活在两种不同语言文化环境中的人,其民族心理、思维方式、审美追求以及价值观,语言逻辑观都大不相同。不同时代的译者对同一部作品的解读也会带上时代的烙印。因此,译者的时代感影响着其翻译策略。 展开更多
关键词 译文 时代感 解读 翻译策略 烙印 译者
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Global Localization and Overseas Dissemination of Huang Di Nei Jing English Translation 预览
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作者 GAO Yun 《文学与艺术研究:英文版》 2019年第4期382-388,共7页
Aiming to promote overseas acceptance level of the domestic English version of Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen on the premise of preserving the cultural characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this paper made ... Aiming to promote overseas acceptance level of the domestic English version of Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen on the premise of preserving the cultural characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this paper made a comparative analysis of different translations of Chinese character "和"(he) in three English versions of Su Wen, based on the discourse theory of "global localization". The analysis reveals that Li’s translation uses the strategy of transliteration plus interpretation to preserve the original Chinese classic’s style, thinking, and ideas, but the effect is not satisfactory. Veith’s free translation enables overseas readers to understand the content relatively easily, but fails to convey the rich TCM cultural connotation. Unschuld’s translation strictly follows the principles of linguistics in order to reflect the original thinking and idea to the utmost extent, and at the same time takes into account the expressions commonly used by the readers of English-speaking countries. That’s the reason why his translation enjoys the greatest popularity among professionals and the general public alike overseas. It is also clear from the analysis that different social historical contexts in which Su Wen was translated and each translator’s subjectivity determine translation’s target audiences, purposes, and ultimately translation strategies. Therefore, in order to speed up the "going out" of TCM culture, domestic translators are suggested to determine target audience and translation purpose in the first place, and study overseas readers’ knowledge background, information needs, reading habits, and value orientation before deciding the translation strategies. 展开更多
关键词 global localization TCM culture HUANG DI Nei Jing English TRANSLATION OVERSEAS READERS TRANSLATION purposes
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