In this paper, an attempt is made to synthesize fuzzy mathematics and quantum mechanics. By using the method of fuzzy mathematics to blur the probability (wave) of quantum mechanics, the concept of fuzzy wave function...In this paper, an attempt is made to synthesize fuzzy mathematics and quantum mechanics. By using the method of fuzzy mathematics to blur the probability (wave) of quantum mechanics, the concept of fuzzy wave function is put forward to describe the fuzzy quantum probability. By applying the non-fuzzy formula of fuzzy quantity and Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics, the membership function equation is established to describe the evolution of the fuzzy wave function. The concept of membership degree amplitude is introduced to calculate fuzzy probability amplitude. Some important concepts in fuzzy mathematics are also illustrated.展开更多
An attempt is made to locate nuclear technology within a logical context considering history, risks, societal catastrophes and perspectives: the need is identified for a new direction in the exploitation in order to r...An attempt is made to locate nuclear technology within a logical context considering history, risks, societal catastrophes and perspectives: the need is identified for a new direction in the exploitation in order to restore the role in energy production. We depict the situation coming from a marvelous history of discoveries started at the beginning of the XX century;heroes are recalled who made possible something that is inconceivable today: design, construction and production of electricity in a few years;that history was tainted by intentional nuclear explosions, </span><i><span style="font-size:12px;font-family:Verdana;">i.e.</span></i><span style="font-size:12px;font-family:Verdana;"> the original sin that we are now paying. Then, we attempt to show that the societal risk is an inherent part of the civilization. Restoring the public trust (towards nuclear fission technology) by matching nuclear safety with the current technological status and advancers in risk assessment is the key objective. The </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">“</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">independent assessment</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">”</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">, or a principle for the exploitation of nuclear energy already stated in the 50’s of the previous century, shall then re-appear. This is used to erect the signpost for a </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">“</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">dynamic barricade</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">”</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;"> to further reduce the risk of operation of nuclear reactors and to match the design with current technological capabilities and with the frontiers of the research.展开更多
<strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate early prediction value of IPS<span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">combined with SchE and D-dimer detection for in...<strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate early prediction value of IPS<span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">combined with SchE and D-dimer detection for infection and survival in critically ill patients. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods:</span></b></span><b><span> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">199 critically ill patients admitted to the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of our hospital from December 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 110 infection patients (infection group) and 89 non-infection</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">patients (non-infection group).</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">According to the survival, the infection group was divided into death group (68 cases) and survival group (42 cases). The IPS, APACHE II, SOFA and SchE, D-dimer expression levels were detected and compared;Univariate and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the independent prognostic factors. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The IPS and APACHE II of patients in the infected group were higher than those in the non-infected group, the level of SchE was lower than that in the non-infected group, and the level of D-dimer was higher than that in the non-infected group (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i></span><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001). IPS, SOFA, APACHE</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> II</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, SchE, D-dimer, invasive mechanical ventilation, septic shock, and ICU length</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> of stay had significant influence on the prognosis of critically ill patients</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">(</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i></span><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that IPS (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2.821, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 1.501</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">5.227), SOFA (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 5.078, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95% </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 3.327 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 7.690), APACHE II (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 14.308, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95% </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 8.901 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 21.893), SchE (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 0.223, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 0.165 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 0.291), D-dimer</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">=</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">2.10</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span> </span></i><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">1.55</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">2.85</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">)</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, septic shock (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 9.948,</span></span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><span> </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 7.012</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">17.012)</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">were independent factors affecting the prognosis of critically ill patients with infection</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">)</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">.</span><span> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Conclusion:</span></b><b><span> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">IPS and D-dimer expression level in infected patients were increased and SchE decreased significantly compared with those in non-infected patients, and they significantly correlated with</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">disease severity of infected</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">patients</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">and could be early prediction</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">for prognosis.</span>展开更多
The non-elementary integrals involving elementary exponential, hyperbolic and trigonometric functions, <img src="Edit_699140d3-f569-463e-b835-7ccdab822717.png" width="290" height="22" ...The non-elementary integrals involving elementary exponential, hyperbolic and trigonometric functions, <img src="Edit_699140d3-f569-463e-b835-7ccdab822717.png" width="290" height="22" alt="" /><img src="Edit_bdd10470-9b63-4b2d-9cec-636969547ca5.png" width="90" height="22" alt="" /><span style="white-space:normal;">and <img src="Edit_e9cd6876-e2b8-45cf-ba17-391f054679b4.png" width="90" height="21" alt="" /></span>where <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>α</em>,<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em></span><em></em></span> and <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>β</em></span> are real or complex constants are evaluated in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function <sub>1</sub><em>F</em><sub>1</sub> and the hypergeometric function <sub>1</sub><em>F</em><sub>2</sub>. The hyperbolic and Euler identities are used to derive some identities involving exponential, hyperbolic, trigonometric functions and the hypergeometric functions <sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub><em style="white-space:normal;">F</em><sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub> and <sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub><em style="white-space:normal;">F</em><sub style="white-space:normal;">2</sub>. Having evaluated, these non-elementary integrals, some new probability measures generalizing the gamma-type and Gaussian distributions are also obtained. The obtained generalized probability distributions may, for example, allow to perform better statistical tests than those already known (e.g. chi-square (<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>x</em><sup>2</sup></span>) statistical tests and other statistical tests constructed based on the central limit theorem (CLT)), while avoiding the use of computational approximations (or methods) which are in general expensive and associated with numerical errors.展开更多
The famous de Moivre’s Laplace limit theorem proved the probability density function of Gaussian distribution from binomial probability mass function under specified conditions. De Moivre’s Laplace approach is cumbe...The famous de Moivre’s Laplace limit theorem proved the probability density function of Gaussian distribution from binomial probability mass function under specified conditions. De Moivre’s Laplace approach is cumbersome as it relies heavily on many lemmas and theorems. This paper invented an alternative and less rigorous method of deriving Gaussian distribution from basic random experiment conditional on some assumptions.展开更多
The purpose of this paper is to present a general universal formula for <span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span><i><span><span><i><span style="...The purpose of this paper is to present a general universal formula for <span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate survival functions for arbitrary </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2, 3, </span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">...</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, given all the univariate marginal survival functions. This universal form of </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate probability distributions was obtained by means of “dependence functions” named “joiners” in the text. These joiners determine all the involved stochastic dependencies between the underlying random variables. However, in order that the presented formula (the form) represents a legitimate survival function, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the joiners had to be found. Basically, finding those conditions is the main task of this paper. This task was successfully performed for the case </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2 and the main results for the case </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 3 were formulated as Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 in Section 4. Nevertheless, the hypothetical conditions valid for the general </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> ≥ 4 case were also formulated in Section 3 as the (very convincing) Hypothesis. As for the sufficient conditions for both the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 3 and</span><i> </i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> ≥ 4 cases, the full generality was not achieved since two restrictions were imposed. Firstly, we limited ourselves to the, defined in the text, “continuous cases” (when the corresponding joint density exists and is continuous), and secondly we consider positive stochastic dependencies only. Nevertheless, the class of the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate distributions which can be constructed is very wide. The presented method of construction by means of joiners can be considered competitive to the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong></strong></span></span></span><strong><span><span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">copula</span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> methodology. As it is suggested in the paper the possibility of building a common theory of both copulae and joiners is quite possible, and the joiners may play the role of tools within the theory of copulae, and vice versa copulae may, for example, be used for finding proper joiners. Another independent feature of the joiners methodology is the possibility of constructing many new stochastic processes including stationary and Markovian.</span></span></span>展开更多
Considering that the probability distribution of random variables in stochastic programming usually has incomplete information due to a perfect sample data in many real applications, this paper discusses a class of tw...Considering that the probability distribution of random variables in stochastic programming usually has incomplete information due to a perfect sample data in many real applications, this paper discusses a class of two-stage stochastic programming problems modeling with maximum minimum expectation compensation criterion (MaxEMin) under the probability distribution having linear partial information (LPI). In view of the nondifferentiability of this kind of stochastic programming modeling, an improved complex algorithm is designed and analyzed. This algorithm can effectively solve the nondifferentiable stochastic programming problem under LPI through the variable polyhedron iteration. The calculation and discussion of numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.展开更多
Further to the investigation of the critical properties of the Potts model with <em>q</em> = 3 and 8 states in one dimension (1D) on directed small-world networks reported by Aquino and Lima, which present...Further to the investigation of the critical properties of the Potts model with <em>q</em> = 3 and 8 states in one dimension (1D) on directed small-world networks reported by Aquino and Lima, which presents, in fact, a second-order phase transition with a new set of critical exponents, in addition to what was reported in Sumour and Lima in studying Ising model on non-local directed small-world for several values of probability 0 < <em>P</em> < 1. In this paper the behavior of two models discussed previously, will be re-examined to study differences between their behavior on directed small-world networks for networks of different values of probability <em>P</em> = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 with different lattice sizes <em>L</em> = 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 to compare between the important physical variables between Ising and Potts models on the directed small-world networks. We found in our paper that is a phase transitions in both Ising and Potts models depending essentially on the probability <em>P</em>.展开更多
The research work is carried out to find spectrum of wavelength of the emitted radiations from filament bulb. Both temperature and wavelength measurement are based on theoretical model. The temperature finding formula...The research work is carried out to find spectrum of wavelength of the emitted radiations from filament bulb. Both temperature and wavelength measurement are based on theoretical model. The temperature finding formula for tungsten filament is obtained by using blackbody radiation approach. The peak wavelength of the emitted radiation is obtained 1.461 μm and 1.125 μm for 6 and 500 watt bulb respectively by using Wein’s displacement law which depends upon temperature of the filament. The wavelength obtained by using Wein’s displacement law, is just an index, which helps to investigate, “how the radiation energy density is distributed” so as to give rise to an electromagnetic spectrum. The results obtained from the applied methodologies show that the accuracy of a model is quite good. Some mathematical techniques and probability theory are used to verify the work. The work is followed by both classical and quantum analysis to justify the results. Temperature only is not the key factor that deserves power of the bulb. The value of resistance plays a vital role in fixing power of the bulb. At least one factor is important in the calibration of the power of the bulb, “either temperature or surface area” of the filament.展开更多
In the previous paper <a href="#ref.1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, the application of the general thermodynamic theory was considered to biological systems. The nature of living matter has...In the previous paper <a href="#ref.1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, the application of the general thermodynamic theory was considered to biological systems. The nature of living matter has been presented from the mesoscopic to the macroscopic point of view, for different time scales (ontogenetic and phylogenetics). Herein, we continue with this application, and present three characteristics of life in the form of statements or postulates. The first characteristic describes the probability of survival against aging. In particular, the behaviour of life is shown as an independent mode of aging. The second characteristic refers to the adaptation of the species according to the environment. The relationship between the phenomenon of organic homeostasis and the origin of the clinical parameters that define health is highlighted. And finally, the third characteristic applies the principle of negentropy to describe evolution. A representative model is given as an example of each postulate.展开更多
In this contribution results from different disciplines of science were compared to show their intimate interweaving with each other having in common the golden ratio <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;...In this contribution results from different disciplines of science were compared to show their intimate interweaving with each other having in common the golden ratio <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">φ</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> respectively its fifth power </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">φ</span></i><sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">5</span></sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">. The research fields cover model calculations of statistical physics associated with phase transitions, the quantum probability of two particles, new physics of everything suggested by the information relativity theory (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">IRT</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">) including explanations of cosmological relevance, the </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">ε</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">infinity theory, superconductivity, and the </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Tammes</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> problem of the largest diameter of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">N</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> non-overlapping circles on the surface of a sphere with its connection to viral morphology and crystallography. Finally, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Fibo</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">nacci</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> anyons proposed for topological quantum</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> computation (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">TQC</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">) were briefly described in comparison to the recently formulated reverse </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Fibonacci</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> approach using the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><em>Jani</em></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>č</em></span><em>ko</em></span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> number sequence. An architecture applicable for a quantum computer is proposed consisting of 13-step twisted microtubules similar to tubulin microtubules of living matter. Most topics point to the omnipresence of the golden mean as the numerical dominator of our world.</span></span></span>展开更多
In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</s...In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</sup> → 6<sup>+</sup> and 6<sup>+</sup> → 8<sup>+</sup> levels of even-even neutron rich <sup>104-114</sup>Ru isotopes have been calculated by using the Global Best Fit (GBF) method. In addition, the associated parameters such as, Quadrupole moment and Deformation parameter of even-even <sup>104-114</sup>Ru have been calculated. The dependency of these nuclear parameters shows the nuclear magic number tendency.展开更多
A complete study of adsorption processes will be less complete if the structure and dynamics of its different elements and how they interact is not well captured. Therefore, the extensive study of adsorption thermodyn...A complete study of adsorption processes will be less complete if the structure and dynamics of its different elements and how they interact is not well captured. Therefore, the extensive study of adsorption thermodynamics in conjunction with adsorption kinetics is inevitable. Measurable thermodynamic </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">properties such as temperature equilibrium constant and their non-measurable</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> counterparts such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy, entropy etc. are very important design variables usually deployed for the evaluation and prediction of the mechanism of adsorption processes.展开更多
Factoring quadratics over Z is a staple of introductory algebra and textbooks tend to create the impression that doable factorizations are fairly common. To the contrary, if coefficients of a general quadratic are sel...Factoring quadratics over Z is a staple of introductory algebra and textbooks tend to create the impression that doable factorizations are fairly common. To the contrary, if coefficients of a general quadratic are selected randomly without restriction, the probability that a factorization exists is zero. We achieve a specific quantification of the probability of factoring quadratics by taking a new approach that considers the absolute size of coefficients to be a parameter n. This restriction allows us to make relative likelihood estimates based on finite sample spaces. Our probability estimates are then conditioned on the size parameter n and the behavior of the conditional estimates may be studied as the parameter is varied. Specifically, we enumerate how many formal factored expressions could possibly correspond to a quadratic for a given size parameter. The conditional probability of factorization as a function of n is just the ratio of this enumeration to the total number of possible quadratics consistent with n. This approach is patterned after the well-known case where factorizations are carried out over a finite field. We review the finite field method as background for our method of dealing with Z [x]. The monic case is developed independently of the general case because it is simpler and the resulting probability estimating formula is more accurate. We conclude with a comparison of our theoretical probability estimates with exact data generated by a computer search for factorable quadratics corresponding to various parameter values.展开更多
The growing demands for high speed connectivity to keep pace with bandwidth intensive applications and services have spawned the idea of developing PONs with capabilities beyond those of copper and wireless-based tech...The growing demands for high speed connectivity to keep pace with bandwidth intensive applications and services have spawned the idea of developing PONs with capabilities beyond those of copper and wireless-based technologies in access network. In this article, an approach for the design of an energy efficient bandwidth allocation mechanism for the shared upstream communication link in the Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access network is presented and evaluated using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. In the MILP model, two objective functions for minimization of power consumption and minimization of blocking were evaluated. The results have shown that with the objective of power minimization approach, Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) are efficiently grouped to the minimum number of active networking Optical Line Terminal (OLT) switches, traffic is groomed, ports are efficiently utilized, and hence total power consumption is minimized. Results have shown that with energy efficient bandwidth allocation approach consideration, energy savings can reach up to 80% for different examined traffic loads following uniform distribution.展开更多
Based on a model of fermions which implies a model of photons, a model of the neutron is constructed by merging two photons of equal energy propagating in opposite directions. The fermion model is outlined, and the me...Based on a model of fermions which implies a model of photons, a model of the neutron is constructed by merging two photons of equal energy propagating in opposite directions. The fermion model is outlined, and the merging of two photons is described in detail. The radius of the neutron obtained in this way is Rn = 0.84008… fm. This value is four times the reduced Compton wavelength of the neutron. Assuming the same model for the proton, one obtains a value of Rp = 0.84123… fm, which agrees with the most recent experimental value for the charge radius of the proton within the given limits of error. The neutral charge of the neutron is reproduced, and the positive charge of the proton follows within the model, if the proton is formed via the anti-neutron by losing one electron. S = ±ħ/2, and zero dipole moment, is also reproduced for proton and neutron. Further, a value of the magnetic moment of the neutron of μ= &minus2.00μN (μN: nuclear magnetic moment), and of the proton of μ = 2.666… μN is predicted. The deviation by ca. 5% from the recommended respective values of (&minus1.9130μn), and (2.793μn) is ascribed to the (g-2)-anomaly. Finally, the relation of the model with the established description of the nucleons in terms of three quarks bound by gluons is shortly discussed.展开更多
Background: Palivizumab were used for the premature infant or a high-risk infant with congenital heart disease. However, recently outbreak pattern of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection has been varying year by...Background: Palivizumab were used for the premature infant or a high-risk infant with congenital heart disease. However, recently outbreak pattern of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection has been varying year by year. Moreover, it also has some regional difference. Therefore, the object of the present study was to develop early detection of the timing of that outbreak had started in each prefecture. Method: We used data in National Official Sentinel Surveillance for Infectious Diseases (NOSSID). Study period was March 16th, 2011 to December 30th, 2018. We defined stating period to initiate to take palivizumab as 8 - 12 weeks before from the peak of outbreak. We estimated whether the week is included in starting period or not from April 1st to the peak of outbreak by the past number of patients of RS virus infection on week and its squared. Additionally, we have to take delay in NOSSID into consideration. Results: In nationwide, the last two seasons, the model predicted precisely the starting period. At prefectural level, the model predicted the starting period precisely in 16.6% of all year and prefectures pairs. When we consider the delay in NOSSID into consideration, the patients can start to take in 14.9% of all year and prefectures pairs. Discussion and Conclusion: The result of the probability model was not good, and thus we have to develop more sophisticated model for prediction at prefecture level.展开更多
An important problem of actuarial risk management is the calculation of the probability of ruin. Using probability theory and the definition of the Laplace transform one obtains expressions, in the classical risk mode...An important problem of actuarial risk management is the calculation of the probability of ruin. Using probability theory and the definition of the Laplace transform one obtains expressions, in the classical risk model, for survival probabilities in a finite time horizon. Then explicit solutions are found with the inversion of the double Laplace transform;using algebra, the Laplace complex inversion formula and Matlab, for the exponential claim amount distribution.展开更多
The probability distributions of small sample data are difficult to determine,while a large proportion of samples occur in the early failure period,so it is particularly important to make full use of these data in the...The probability distributions of small sample data are difficult to determine,while a large proportion of samples occur in the early failure period,so it is particularly important to make full use of these data in the statistical analysis.Based on gamma distribution,four methods of probability density function(PDF)reconstruction with early failure data are proposed,and then the mean time between failures(MTBF)evaluation expressions are concluded from the reconstructed PDFs.Both theory analysis and an example show that method 2 is the best evaluation method in dealing with early-failure-small-sample data.The reconstruction methods of PDF also have certain guiding significance for other distribution types.展开更多
文摘In this paper, an attempt is made to synthesize fuzzy mathematics and quantum mechanics. By using the method of fuzzy mathematics to blur the probability (wave) of quantum mechanics, the concept of fuzzy wave function is put forward to describe the fuzzy quantum probability. By applying the non-fuzzy formula of fuzzy quantity and Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics, the membership function equation is established to describe the evolution of the fuzzy wave function. The concept of membership degree amplitude is introduced to calculate fuzzy probability amplitude. Some important concepts in fuzzy mathematics are also illustrated.
文摘An attempt is made to locate nuclear technology within a logical context considering history, risks, societal catastrophes and perspectives: the need is identified for a new direction in the exploitation in order to restore the role in energy production. We depict the situation coming from a marvelous history of discoveries started at the beginning of the XX century;heroes are recalled who made possible something that is inconceivable today: design, construction and production of electricity in a few years;that history was tainted by intentional nuclear explosions, </span><i><span style="font-size:12px;font-family:Verdana;">i.e.</span></i><span style="font-size:12px;font-family:Verdana;"> the original sin that we are now paying. Then, we attempt to show that the societal risk is an inherent part of the civilization. Restoring the public trust (towards nuclear fission technology) by matching nuclear safety with the current technological status and advancers in risk assessment is the key objective. The </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">“</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">independent assessment</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">”</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">, or a principle for the exploitation of nuclear energy already stated in the 50’s of the previous century, shall then re-appear. This is used to erect the signpost for a </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">“</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">dynamic barricade</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;">”</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;font-size:12px;"> to further reduce the risk of operation of nuclear reactors and to match the design with current technological capabilities and with the frontiers of the research.
文摘<strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate early prediction value of IPS<span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">combined with SchE and D-dimer detection for infection and survival in critically ill patients. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methods:</span></b></span><b><span> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">199 critically ill patients admitted to the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of our hospital from December 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed, including 110 infection patients (infection group) and 89 non-infection</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">patients (non-infection group).</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">According to the survival, the infection group was divided into death group (68 cases) and survival group (42 cases). The IPS, APACHE II, SOFA and SchE, D-dimer expression levels were detected and compared;Univariate and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the independent prognostic factors. </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results: </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">The IPS and APACHE II of patients in the infected group were higher than those in the non-infected group, the level of SchE was lower than that in the non-infected group, and the level of D-dimer was higher than that in the non-infected group (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i></span><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001). IPS, SOFA, APACHE</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> II</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, SchE, D-dimer, invasive mechanical ventilation, septic shock, and ICU length</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> of stay had significant influence on the prognosis of critically ill patients</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">(</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i></span><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that IPS (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2.821, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 1.501</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">5.227), SOFA (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 5.078, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95% </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 3.327 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 7.690), APACHE II (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 14.308, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95% </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 8.901 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 21.893), SchE (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 0.223, </span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> CI</span></i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 0.165 </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 0.291), D-dimer</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">=</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">2.10</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><i><span> </span></i><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i><i><span> </span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">1.55</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">2.85</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">)</span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, septic shock (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">OR</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 9.948,</span></span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">95%</span><span> </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">CI</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> 7.012</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> - </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">17.012)</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">were independent factors affecting the prognosis of critically ill patients with infection</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">P</span></i><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">0.001</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">)</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">.</span><span> </span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Conclusion:</span></b><b><span> </span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">IPS and D-dimer expression level in infected patients were increased and SchE decreased significantly compared with those in non-infected patients, and they significantly correlated with</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">disease severity of infected</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">patients</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">and could be early prediction</span><span> </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">for prognosis.</span>
文摘The non-elementary integrals involving elementary exponential, hyperbolic and trigonometric functions, <img src="Edit_699140d3-f569-463e-b835-7ccdab822717.png" width="290" height="22" alt="" /><img src="Edit_bdd10470-9b63-4b2d-9cec-636969547ca5.png" width="90" height="22" alt="" /><span style="white-space:normal;">and <img src="Edit_e9cd6876-e2b8-45cf-ba17-391f054679b4.png" width="90" height="21" alt="" /></span>where <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>α</em>,<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em></span><em></em></span> and <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>β</em></span> are real or complex constants are evaluated in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function <sub>1</sub><em>F</em><sub>1</sub> and the hypergeometric function <sub>1</sub><em>F</em><sub>2</sub>. The hyperbolic and Euler identities are used to derive some identities involving exponential, hyperbolic, trigonometric functions and the hypergeometric functions <sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub><em style="white-space:normal;">F</em><sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub> and <sub style="white-space:normal;">1</sub><em style="white-space:normal;">F</em><sub style="white-space:normal;">2</sub>. Having evaluated, these non-elementary integrals, some new probability measures generalizing the gamma-type and Gaussian distributions are also obtained. The obtained generalized probability distributions may, for example, allow to perform better statistical tests than those already known (e.g. chi-square (<span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>x</em><sup>2</sup></span>) statistical tests and other statistical tests constructed based on the central limit theorem (CLT)), while avoiding the use of computational approximations (or methods) which are in general expensive and associated with numerical errors.
文摘The famous de Moivre’s Laplace limit theorem proved the probability density function of Gaussian distribution from binomial probability mass function under specified conditions. De Moivre’s Laplace approach is cumbersome as it relies heavily on many lemmas and theorems. This paper invented an alternative and less rigorous method of deriving Gaussian distribution from basic random experiment conditional on some assumptions.
文摘The purpose of this paper is to present a general universal formula for <span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate survival functions for arbitrary </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2, 3, </span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">...</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, given all the univariate marginal survival functions. This universal form of </span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate probability distributions was obtained by means of “dependence functions” named “joiners” in the text. These joiners determine all the involved stochastic dependencies between the underlying random variables. However, in order that the presented formula (the form) represents a legitimate survival function, some necessary and sufficient conditions for the joiners had to be found. Basically, finding those conditions is the main task of this paper. This task was successfully performed for the case </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 2 and the main results for the case </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 3 were formulated as Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 in Section 4. Nevertheless, the hypothetical conditions valid for the general </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> ≥ 4 case were also formulated in Section 3 as the (very convincing) Hypothesis. As for the sufficient conditions for both the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> = 3 and</span><i> </i></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> ≥ 4 cases, the full generality was not achieved since two restrictions were imposed. Firstly, we limited ourselves to the, defined in the text, “continuous cases” (when the corresponding joint density exists and is continuous), and secondly we consider positive stochastic dependencies only. Nevertheless, the class of the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><i></i></span></span></span><i><span><span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">k</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></i><span><span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-variate distributions which can be constructed is very wide. The presented method of construction by means of joiners can be considered competitive to the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><strong></strong></span></span></span><strong><span><span><b><span style="font-family:Verdana;">copula</span></b><span style="font-family:Verdana;"></span></span></span></strong><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> methodology. As it is suggested in the paper the possibility of building a common theory of both copulae and joiners is quite possible, and the joiners may play the role of tools within the theory of copulae, and vice versa copulae may, for example, be used for finding proper joiners. Another independent feature of the joiners methodology is the possibility of constructing many new stochastic processes including stationary and Markovian.</span></span></span>
文摘Considering that the probability distribution of random variables in stochastic programming usually has incomplete information due to a perfect sample data in many real applications, this paper discusses a class of two-stage stochastic programming problems modeling with maximum minimum expectation compensation criterion (MaxEMin) under the probability distribution having linear partial information (LPI). In view of the nondifferentiability of this kind of stochastic programming modeling, an improved complex algorithm is designed and analyzed. This algorithm can effectively solve the nondifferentiable stochastic programming problem under LPI through the variable polyhedron iteration. The calculation and discussion of numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
文摘Further to the investigation of the critical properties of the Potts model with <em>q</em> = 3 and 8 states in one dimension (1D) on directed small-world networks reported by Aquino and Lima, which presents, in fact, a second-order phase transition with a new set of critical exponents, in addition to what was reported in Sumour and Lima in studying Ising model on non-local directed small-world for several values of probability 0 < <em>P</em> < 1. In this paper the behavior of two models discussed previously, will be re-examined to study differences between their behavior on directed small-world networks for networks of different values of probability <em>P</em> = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 with different lattice sizes <em>L</em> = 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 to compare between the important physical variables between Ising and Potts models on the directed small-world networks. We found in our paper that is a phase transitions in both Ising and Potts models depending essentially on the probability <em>P</em>.
文摘The research work is carried out to find spectrum of wavelength of the emitted radiations from filament bulb. Both temperature and wavelength measurement are based on theoretical model. The temperature finding formula for tungsten filament is obtained by using blackbody radiation approach. The peak wavelength of the emitted radiation is obtained 1.461 μm and 1.125 μm for 6 and 500 watt bulb respectively by using Wein’s displacement law which depends upon temperature of the filament. The wavelength obtained by using Wein’s displacement law, is just an index, which helps to investigate, “how the radiation energy density is distributed” so as to give rise to an electromagnetic spectrum. The results obtained from the applied methodologies show that the accuracy of a model is quite good. Some mathematical techniques and probability theory are used to verify the work. The work is followed by both classical and quantum analysis to justify the results. Temperature only is not the key factor that deserves power of the bulb. The value of resistance plays a vital role in fixing power of the bulb. At least one factor is important in the calibration of the power of the bulb, “either temperature or surface area” of the filament.
文摘In the previous paper <a href="#ref.1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, the application of the general thermodynamic theory was considered to biological systems. The nature of living matter has been presented from the mesoscopic to the macroscopic point of view, for different time scales (ontogenetic and phylogenetics). Herein, we continue with this application, and present three characteristics of life in the form of statements or postulates. The first characteristic describes the probability of survival against aging. In particular, the behaviour of life is shown as an independent mode of aging. The second characteristic refers to the adaptation of the species according to the environment. The relationship between the phenomenon of organic homeostasis and the origin of the clinical parameters that define health is highlighted. And finally, the third characteristic applies the principle of negentropy to describe evolution. A representative model is given as an example of each postulate.
文摘In this contribution results from different disciplines of science were compared to show their intimate interweaving with each other having in common the golden ratio <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">φ</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> respectively its fifth power </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">φ</span></i><sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">5</span></sup><span style="font-family:Verdana;">. The research fields cover model calculations of statistical physics associated with phase transitions, the quantum probability of two particles, new physics of everything suggested by the information relativity theory (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">IRT</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">) including explanations of cosmological relevance, the </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">ε</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span></span></span><span><span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">infinity theory, superconductivity, and the </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Tammes</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> problem of the largest diameter of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">N</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> non-overlapping circles on the surface of a sphere with its connection to viral morphology and crystallography. Finally, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Fibo</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">nacci</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> anyons proposed for topological quantum</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> computation (</span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">TQC</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">) were briefly described in comparison to the recently formulated reverse </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Fibonacci</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> approach using the </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><em>Jani</em></span></span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>č</em></span><em>ko</em></span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> number sequence. An architecture applicable for a quantum computer is proposed consisting of 13-step twisted microtubules similar to tubulin microtubules of living matter. Most topics point to the omnipresence of the golden mean as the numerical dominator of our world.</span></span></span>
文摘In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</sup> → 6<sup>+</sup> and 6<sup>+</sup> → 8<sup>+</sup> levels of even-even neutron rich <sup>104-114</sup>Ru isotopes have been calculated by using the Global Best Fit (GBF) method. In addition, the associated parameters such as, Quadrupole moment and Deformation parameter of even-even <sup>104-114</sup>Ru have been calculated. The dependency of these nuclear parameters shows the nuclear magic number tendency.
文摘A complete study of adsorption processes will be less complete if the structure and dynamics of its different elements and how they interact is not well captured. Therefore, the extensive study of adsorption thermodynamics in conjunction with adsorption kinetics is inevitable. Measurable thermodynamic </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">properties such as temperature equilibrium constant and their non-measurable</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> counterparts such as Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy, entropy etc. are very important design variables usually deployed for the evaluation and prediction of the mechanism of adsorption processes.
文摘Factoring quadratics over Z is a staple of introductory algebra and textbooks tend to create the impression that doable factorizations are fairly common. To the contrary, if coefficients of a general quadratic are selected randomly without restriction, the probability that a factorization exists is zero. We achieve a specific quantification of the probability of factoring quadratics by taking a new approach that considers the absolute size of coefficients to be a parameter n. This restriction allows us to make relative likelihood estimates based on finite sample spaces. Our probability estimates are then conditioned on the size parameter n and the behavior of the conditional estimates may be studied as the parameter is varied. Specifically, we enumerate how many formal factored expressions could possibly correspond to a quadratic for a given size parameter. The conditional probability of factorization as a function of n is just the ratio of this enumeration to the total number of possible quadratics consistent with n. This approach is patterned after the well-known case where factorizations are carried out over a finite field. We review the finite field method as background for our method of dealing with Z [x]. The monic case is developed independently of the general case because it is simpler and the resulting probability estimating formula is more accurate. We conclude with a comparison of our theoretical probability estimates with exact data generated by a computer search for factorable quadratics corresponding to various parameter values.
文摘The growing demands for high speed connectivity to keep pace with bandwidth intensive applications and services have spawned the idea of developing PONs with capabilities beyond those of copper and wireless-based technologies in access network. In this article, an approach for the design of an energy efficient bandwidth allocation mechanism for the shared upstream communication link in the Fiber to the Home (FTTH) access network is presented and evaluated using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. In the MILP model, two objective functions for minimization of power consumption and minimization of blocking were evaluated. The results have shown that with the objective of power minimization approach, Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) are efficiently grouped to the minimum number of active networking Optical Line Terminal (OLT) switches, traffic is groomed, ports are efficiently utilized, and hence total power consumption is minimized. Results have shown that with energy efficient bandwidth allocation approach consideration, energy savings can reach up to 80% for different examined traffic loads following uniform distribution.
文摘Based on a model of fermions which implies a model of photons, a model of the neutron is constructed by merging two photons of equal energy propagating in opposite directions. The fermion model is outlined, and the merging of two photons is described in detail. The radius of the neutron obtained in this way is Rn = 0.84008… fm. This value is four times the reduced Compton wavelength of the neutron. Assuming the same model for the proton, one obtains a value of Rp = 0.84123… fm, which agrees with the most recent experimental value for the charge radius of the proton within the given limits of error. The neutral charge of the neutron is reproduced, and the positive charge of the proton follows within the model, if the proton is formed via the anti-neutron by losing one electron. S = ±ħ/2, and zero dipole moment, is also reproduced for proton and neutron. Further, a value of the magnetic moment of the neutron of μ= &minus2.00μN (μN: nuclear magnetic moment), and of the proton of μ = 2.666… μN is predicted. The deviation by ca. 5% from the recommended respective values of (&minus1.9130μn), and (2.793μn) is ascribed to the (g-2)-anomaly. Finally, the relation of the model with the established description of the nucleons in terms of three quarks bound by gluons is shortly discussed.
文摘Background: Palivizumab were used for the premature infant or a high-risk infant with congenital heart disease. However, recently outbreak pattern of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus infection has been varying year by year. Moreover, it also has some regional difference. Therefore, the object of the present study was to develop early detection of the timing of that outbreak had started in each prefecture. Method: We used data in National Official Sentinel Surveillance for Infectious Diseases (NOSSID). Study period was March 16th, 2011 to December 30th, 2018. We defined stating period to initiate to take palivizumab as 8 - 12 weeks before from the peak of outbreak. We estimated whether the week is included in starting period or not from April 1st to the peak of outbreak by the past number of patients of RS virus infection on week and its squared. Additionally, we have to take delay in NOSSID into consideration. Results: In nationwide, the last two seasons, the model predicted precisely the starting period. At prefectural level, the model predicted the starting period precisely in 16.6% of all year and prefectures pairs. When we consider the delay in NOSSID into consideration, the patients can start to take in 14.9% of all year and prefectures pairs. Discussion and Conclusion: The result of the probability model was not good, and thus we have to develop more sophisticated model for prediction at prefecture level.
文摘An important problem of actuarial risk management is the calculation of the probability of ruin. Using probability theory and the definition of the Laplace transform one obtains expressions, in the classical risk model, for survival probabilities in a finite time horizon. Then explicit solutions are found with the inversion of the double Laplace transform;using algebra, the Laplace complex inversion formula and Matlab, for the exponential claim amount distribution.
基金National Science and Technology Major Project of China(No.2016ZX04003001)。
文摘The probability distributions of small sample data are difficult to determine,while a large proportion of samples occur in the early failure period,so it is particularly important to make full use of these data in the statistical analysis.Based on gamma distribution,four methods of probability density function(PDF)reconstruction with early failure data are proposed,and then the mean time between failures(MTBF)evaluation expressions are concluded from the reconstructed PDFs.Both theory analysis and an example show that method 2 is the best evaluation method in dealing with early-failure-small-sample data.The reconstruction methods of PDF also have certain guiding significance for other distribution types.