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A Possible Way to Realize Controlled Nuclear Fusion at Low Temperatures 预览
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作者 Shihao Chen Ziwei Chen 《核科学与技术国际期刊(英文)》 2020年第1期23-31,共9页
This paper presents a new way to realize controlled nuclear fusion. The way is that a single energy neutron beam fuses with given nuclei, such as lithium nuclei or boron nuclei, so that the nuclear energy is released.... This paper presents a new way to realize controlled nuclear fusion. The way is that a single energy neutron beam fuses with given nuclei, such as lithium nuclei or boron nuclei, so that the nuclear energy is released. The sort of fusion can be achieved at low temperatures, because a neutron has no charge and has a large reaction cross section with a nucleus. The fusion is easy to control and does not produce radioactive spent nuclear fuel. One of the five sorts of neutron sources is the electron neutron source in which a single energy electron beam collides with a single energy bare nucleus beam, such as the deuteron, to produce a single energy neutron. These neutrons irradiate target nuclei and are absorbed by the target nuclei, so that nuclear energy is released. Compared with conventional fusion, it has the disadvantage of releasing less energy and energy density. In addition, it takes a certain amount of energy to produce a beam of single-energy neutrons. However, if some of the input energy can be effectively recycled, the fusion process must produce more energy than the input energy. 展开更多
关键词 NUCLEAR Fusion at Low Temperature NEUTRON Source LITHIUM NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEUS
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碳酸盐黏土型锂资源的发现及意义
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作者 温汉捷 罗重光 +6 位作者 杜胜江 于文修 顾汉念 凌坤跃 崔燚 李阳 杨季华 《科学通报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期53-59,共7页
黏土型锂资源具有矿床规模大、分布稳定、开发利用成本低的特点,成为近年来全球寻找新类型锂资源的一个重要方向.已报道的黏土型锂矿床成因上均与火山物质联系密切,本研究提出了成因机制与碳酸盐岩风化-沉积有关"碳酸盐黏土型锂矿... 黏土型锂资源具有矿床规模大、分布稳定、开发利用成本低的特点,成为近年来全球寻找新类型锂资源的一个重要方向.已报道的黏土型锂矿床成因上均与火山物质联系密切,本研究提出了成因机制与碳酸盐岩风化-沉积有关"碳酸盐黏土型锂矿床"的成矿新类型.主要地质地球化学特征可归纳为:(1)成矿物质来自基底的不纯碳酸盐岩;(2)主要以吸附方式存在于蒙脱石相中;(3)沉积环境对锂的富集具有重要的控制作用,还原、低能、滞留、局限的古地理环境有利于Li富集;(4)除Li外,还可能有Ga和REE的富集.根据这一新的成矿模型,通过科研示范性勘查,在滇中地区获得34×10~4t氧化锂资源量,达到超大型规模,验证了"碳酸盐黏土型锂矿床"这一新类型资源的成矿潜力.由于我国具有这一有利成矿条件的地区众多,可以预期,碳酸盐黏土型锂资源将有望成为我国新的重要的锂资源来源. 展开更多
关键词 碳酸盐岩 黏土型 风化作用
Facile Fabrication of Fe3O4@TiO2@C Yolk–Shell Spheres as Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries 预览
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作者 Wenming Liao Zhongqiang Shan Jianhua Tian 《天津大学学报:英文版》 EI CAS 2020年第1期3-12,共10页
Transition metal oxides have been actively exploited for application in lithium ion batteries due to their facile synthesis,high specific capacity,and environmental-friendly.In this paper,Fe3O4@TiO2@C yolk-shell(Y-S)s... Transition metal oxides have been actively exploited for application in lithium ion batteries due to their facile synthesis,high specific capacity,and environmental-friendly.In this paper,Fe3O4@TiO2@C yolk-shell(Y-S)spheres,used as anode material for lithium ion batteries,were successfully fabricated by Stober method.XRD patterns reveal that Fe3O4@TiO2@C Y-S spheres possess a good crystallinity.But the diffraction peaks’intensity of Fe3O4 crystals in the composites is much weaker than that of bare Fe3O4 spheres,indicating that the outer anatase TiO2@C layer can cover up the diffraction peaks of inner Fe3O4 spheres.The yolk-shell structure of Fe3O4@TiO2@C spheres is further characterized by TEM,HAADFSTEM,and EDS mapping.The yolk-shell structure is good for improving the cycling stability of the inner Fe3O4 spheres during lithium ions insertion-extraction processes.When tested at 200 mA/g,the Fe3O4@TiO2@C Y-S spheres can provide a stable discharge capacity of 450 mAh/g over 100 cycles,which is much better than that of bare Fe3O4 spheres and TiO2@C spheres.Furthermore,cyclic voltammetry curves show that the composites have a good cycling stability compared to bare Fe3O4 spheres. 展开更多
关键词 Fe3O4@TiO2@C yolk-shell spheres Cycle performance Lithium ion batteries Anode material
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以PAC为原料制备锂吸附剂及其吸附性能的研究 预览
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作者 张文丁 邓小川 +3 位作者 朱朝梁 樊发英 张毅 卿彬菊 《无机盐工业》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第2期12-16,共5页
研究了以聚氯化铝(PAC)为原料合成锂吸附剂,在最佳条件下制备得到吸附剂,其最大饱和吸附容量为6.1 mg/g,适宜的吸附溶液pH为3~5,对Li-Ca体系选择性很好,能很好地分离锂离子和钙离子,在最佳脱附条件下脱附率达到40.58%。吸附机理的研究表... 研究了以聚氯化铝(PAC)为原料合成锂吸附剂,在最佳条件下制备得到吸附剂,其最大饱和吸附容量为6.1 mg/g,适宜的吸附溶液pH为3~5,对Li-Ca体系选择性很好,能很好地分离锂离子和钙离子,在最佳脱附条件下脱附率达到40.58%。吸附机理的研究表明,吸附剂在吸附前后,结构未发生明显变化,吸附、脱附过程中有锂离子的嵌入和脱出,且锂离子的嵌入和脱出是与氢离子发生了离子交换。 展开更多
关键词 聚氯化铝 吸附剂
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Dendrite-free all-solid-state lithium batteries with lithium phosphorous oxynitride-modified lithium metal anode and composite solid electrolytes
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作者 Chunhua Wang Guoliang Bai +2 位作者 Yifu Yang Xingjiang Liu Huixia Shao 《纳米研究:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期217-223,共7页
Dendrite formation on lithium (Li) metal anode is a key issue which hinders the development of rechargeable Li battery seriously. A novel method for suppress!ng Li dendrites via using Li phosphorous oxynitride (UPON) ... Dendrite formation on lithium (Li) metal anode is a key issue which hinders the development of rechargeable Li battery seriously. A novel method for suppress!ng Li dendrites via using Li phosphorous oxynitride (UPON) modified Li anode and Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-poly(ethylene oxide)(Li bistrifluoromethane-sulfonimide)(LAGP-PEO(LiTFSI)) composite solid electrolyte in all-solid-state Li battery is proposed, and the effect of the thickness of UPON on Li anode performarice is also studied. LiPON film with a thickness of 500 nm exhibits satisfactory interface property between Li metal anode and the LAGP-PEO(LiTFSI) solid electrolyte. The LiPON film provides a uniform Li^+ flux across the interface and effectively inhibits the formation of Li dendrites in all-solid-state Li batteries. The assembled all-solid-state Li cell Li(LiPON)/LAGP-PEO(LiTFSI)/LiFePO4 delivers an initial discharge capacity of 152.4 mAh·g^-1 and exhibits good cycling stability and rate performanee at 50 ℃. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM metal anode LITHIUM DENDRITES Li phosphorous OXYNITRIDE (LiPON) composite solid electrolyte ALL-SOLID-STATE LITHIUM battery
Reduction of Anisotropic Volume Expansion and the Optimization of Specific Charge Capacity in Lithiated Silicon Nanowires 预览
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作者 Donald C. Boone 《纳米科学与工程(英文)》 2019年第2期15-24,共10页
This computational research study analyzes the increase of the specific charge capacity that comes with the reduction of the anisotropic volume expansion during lithium ion insertion within silicon nanowires. This res... This computational research study analyzes the increase of the specific charge capacity that comes with the reduction of the anisotropic volume expansion during lithium ion insertion within silicon nanowires. This research paper is a continuation from previous work that studied the expansion rate and volume increase. It has been determined that when the lithium ion concentration is decreased by regulating the amount of Li ion flux, the lithium ions to silicon atoms ratio, represented by x, decreases within the amorphous lithiated silicon (a-LixSi) material. This results in a decrease in the volumetric strain of the lithiated silicon nanowire as well as a reduction in Maxwell stress that was calculated and Young’s elastic module that was measured experimentally using nanoindentation. The conclusion as will be seen is that as there is a decrease in lithium ion concentration there is a corresponding decrease in anisotropic volume and a resulting increase in specific charge capacity. In fact the amplification of the electromagnetic field due to the electron flux that created detrimental effects for a fully lithiated silicon nanowire at x = 3.75 which resulted in over a 300% volume expansion becomes beneficial with the decrease in lithium ion flux as x approaches 0.75, which leads to a marginal volume increase of ~25 percent. This could lead to the use of crystalline silicon, c-Si, as an anode material that has been demonstrated in many previous research works to be ten times greater charge capacity than carbon base anode material for lithium ion batteries. 展开更多
关键词 Silicon NANOWIRE LITHIUM BATTERIES
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Lithium-matrix composite anode protected by a solid electrolyte layer for stable lithium metal batteries 预览
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作者 Xin Shen Xinbing Cheng +5 位作者 Peng Shi Jiaqi Huang Xueqiang Zhang Chong Yan Tao Li Qiang Zhang 《能源化学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第10期29-34,共6页
Lithium (Li) metal with an ultrahigh specific theoretical capacity and the lowest reduction potential is strongly considered as a promising anode for high-energy-density batteries. However, uncontrolled lithium dendri... Lithium (Li) metal with an ultrahigh specific theoretical capacity and the lowest reduction potential is strongly considered as a promising anode for high-energy-density batteries. However, uncontrolled lithium dendrites and infinite volume change during repeated plating/stripping cycles hinder its practical applications immensely. Herein, a house-like Li anode (housed Li) was designed to circumvent the above issues. The house matrix was composed of carbon fiber matrix and affords a stable structure to relieve the volume change. An artificial solid electrolyte layer was formed on composite Li metal, just like the roof of a house, which facilitates uniform Li ions diffusion and serves as a physical barrier against electrolyte corrosion. With the combination of solid electrolyte layer and matrix in the composite Li metal anode, both dendrite growth and volume expansion are remarkably inhibited. The housed Li|LiFePO4 batteries exhibited over 95% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 1.0 C in coin cell and 85% capacity retention after 80 cycles at 0.5 C in pouch cell. The rationally combination of solid electrolyte layer protection and housed framework in one Li metal anode sheds fresh insights on the design principle of a safe and long-lifespan Li metal anode for Li metal batteries. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM METAL anode Solid electrolyte LAYER Composite electrode LITHIUM METAL DENDRITES Rechargeable BATTERIES
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Electrolyte for lithium protection: From liquid to solid 预览
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作者 Xiaohong Wu Kecheng Pan +4 位作者 Mengmin Jia Yufei Ren Hongyan He Lan Zhang Suojiang Zhang 《绿色能源与环境:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第4期360-374,共15页
Lithium battery with high energy density and enhanced safety is undoubtedly the ideal choice for consumer electronics and electric vehicles.Metal anode such as lithium has been considered as the most effective way to ... Lithium battery with high energy density and enhanced safety is undoubtedly the ideal choice for consumer electronics and electric vehicles.Metal anode such as lithium has been considered as the most effective way to enhance the energy density as it provides ultra-high theoretical capacity and the lowest redox potential.However,due to the low coulombic efficiency as well as safety concerns originated from dendrite issue of lithium,its further commercial utilization is hindered.Dendrite growth is a common phenomenon in metal electrodeposition while the plating process of Li is more complicated than other metals for its high reactivity nature.As a matter of fact,the Li plating process is accompanied with the generation of solid electrolyte interphase(SEI)in which the electrolyte plays a vital role.In this paper,recent advances of electrolytes for Li protect application are reviewed,from liquid to gel polymer and solid state,on which we find that although tremendous progress has been accomplished,there are still great challenges before Li metal anode could be commercially used. 展开更多
关键词 Lithium battery DENDRITE Lithium protection ELECTROLYTE SEI
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Isothermal Evaporating Phase Equilibria in the Quaternary System (LiCl+NaCl+Li2SO4+Na2SO4+H2O)at 348.15 K and 0.1 MPa:An Experimental and Theoretical Study 预览
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作者 GUO Ya-fei YUAN Fei +2 位作者 LI Long WANG Shi-qiang DENG Tian-long 《盐湖研究》 CSCD 2019年第2期69-77,共9页
The gradient solar pond technique is an economic separating process employed in the inorganic chemical industrial production of salt lake chemical engineering processes. In this paper, a novel isothermal evaporation e... The gradient solar pond technique is an economic separating process employed in the inorganic chemical industrial production of salt lake chemical engineering processes. In this paper, a novel isothermal evaporation experimental method was employed to simulate the evaporation phase equilibrium for the reciprocal quaternary system (LiCl+NaCl+Li2SO4+Na2SO 4+H2O) at 348.15 K to serve as a useful guide for lithium salt production via the depth solar ponds.The isothermal evaporation equilibrium solubilities and physicochemical properties,including the densities and pH values, were experimentally investigated. The dry-salt phase diagram,water-phase diagram, and the diagram of the physicochemical properties versus composition were plotted with respect to the experimental data. The dry-salt phase diagram consists of three invariant points,seven univariant solubility curves, and five crystallization regions, specifically halite(NaCl,Ha),thenardite (Na2SO4,Th),double salt (Li2SO4 · Na2SO4 , Db2), lithium sulfate monohydrate (Li2SO4 ·H2O, Ls), and lithium chloride monohydrate(LiCl·H2O, Lc). Based on Pitzer and its extended HMW model, the Pitzer single salt parameters, mixing ion interaction parameters, and thermodynamic stable equilibrium constants for the quaternary system at 348.15 K were obtained. The calculated phase diagram and experimental isothermal phase diagram at 348.15 K exhibited a great difference. Based on these results, the isothermal evaporation phase diagram can truly reflect the salt sedimentary in salt lakes and can be applied as a useful guide for the solar pond process. 展开更多
关键词 Phase diagram Solubility LITHIUM chloride LITHIUM sulfate Pitzer model
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Challenges of Lithium Metal Anode Enlightened from 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry 预览
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作者 LI Xiang WEI Ying +2 位作者 WU Jing-Yi YUAN Li-Xia HUANG Yun-Hui 《结构化学》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第12期1999-2004,共6页
The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists who have made great contributions in discovery of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs). The LIBs with graphite as anode have dominated the rechargeable battery ... The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists who have made great contributions in discovery of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs). The LIBs with graphite as anode have dominated the rechargeable battery markets of portable electronics and electric vehicles(EVs). For the next-generation batteries, high energy density is the important trend of development. Thus lithium metal is considered as the most promising anode owing to its highest theoretical capacity and the lowest electrochemical potential. However, the severe safety concerns hinder its practical application. The uncontrollable growth of lithium dendrites leads to capacity decay, low Coulombic efficiency, possible short circuit and thermal runaway. In this perspective, various methods to protect Li metal anode have been analyzed. The development of solid-state electrolytes(SSEs) and the role of lithium anode in SSEs are discussed. Several new strategies for improving the safety of Li metal based batteries are proposed to realize the real market-oriented security applications. 展开更多
关键词 lithium anode safety issues lithium dendrite solid-state electrolytes
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An air-stable and waterproof lithium metal anode enabled by wax composite packaging
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作者 Yunbo Zhang Wei Lv +9 位作者 Zhijia Huang Guangmin Zhou Yaqian Deng Jun Zhang Chen Zhang Boyu Hao Qi Qi Yan-Bing He Feiyu Kang Quan-Hong Yang 《科学通报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第13期910-917,共8页
The reviving use of lithium metal anode(LMA)is one of the most promising ways to upgrade the energy density of lithium ion batteries.In the roadmap towards the real use,besides the formation of the dendrite,various ad... The reviving use of lithium metal anode(LMA)is one of the most promising ways to upgrade the energy density of lithium ion batteries.In the roadmap towards the real use,besides the formation of the dendrite,various adverse reactions due to the high activity of LMA when exposed to air or the electrolyte limit its practical applications.Learning from the packaging technology in electronic industry,we propose a wax-based coating compositing with the ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide)by a simple dip-coating technology and the prepared LMA is featured with an air-stable and waterproof surface.The LMA thus remains stable for 24 h in ambient air even with the relative humidity of 70% while retaining about85% its electrochemical capacity.More importantly,the LMA is accessible to water and when dipping in water,no obvious adverse reactions or capacity decay is observed.With the composite coating,a steady cycling performance for 500 h in symmetrical cells and a low capacity decay rate of 0.075% per cycle after 300 cycles in lithium-sulfur batteries assembled with the packaged anode have been achieved.This work demonstrates a very simple and effective LMA package technology which is easily scalable and is very promising for speeding up the industrialization of lithium-sulfur batteries and shows potentials for the large-scale production of air-sensitive electrode materials not limited to LMAs. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM metal anode Air-stable WATERPROOF DENDRITE LITHIUM sulfur battery
Porous LiF layer fabricated by a facile chemical method toward dendrite-free lithium metal anode 预览
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作者 Yanxia Yuan Feng Wu +2 位作者 Guanghai Chen Ying Bai Chuan Wu 《能源化学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第10期197-203,共7页
Lithium metal is supposed to be critical material for constructing next-generation batteries due to extremely high capacity and ultralow redox potential. However, the perplexing issue of lithium dendrite growth impede... Lithium metal is supposed to be critical material for constructing next-generation batteries due to extremely high capacity and ultralow redox potential. However, the perplexing issue of lithium dendrite growth impedes the commercial application. The initial nucleation and low Li ions diffusion rate in the electrolyte/electrode interface dominate the deposition behavior. Therefore, a uniform and flexible interface is urgently needed. Here, a facile method is proposed to prepare a thin and porous LiF-rich layer (TPL) by the in-situ reaction of small amount of ammonium hydrogen difluoride (NH4HF2) and Li metal. The deposition morphology on Li metal anode with LiF layer is significantly flat and homogeneous owning to low lateral diffusion barrier on LiF crystals and the porous structure of TPL film. Additionally, the symmetrical cells made with such TPL Li anodes show significantly stable cycling over 100 cycles at high current density of 6 mA/cm^2. The TPL Li|LiFePO4 full cells keep over 99% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 2.0 C. This approach serves as a facile and controllable way of adjusting the protective layer on Li metal. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM metal anode POROUS LIF LAYER LITHIUM DENDRITE Artificial SEI
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Infiltrating lithium into carbon doth decorated with zinc oxide arrays for dendrite-free lithium metal anode
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作者 Xianshu Wang Zhenghui Pan +6 位作者 Yang Wu Xiaoyu Ding Xujia Hong Guoguang Xu Meinan Liu Yuegang Zhang Weishan Li 《纳米研究:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第3期525-529,共5页
Lithium metal anode for batteries has attracted extensive attentions, but its application is restricted by the hazardous dendritic Li growth and dead Li formation. To address these issues, a novel Li anode is develope... Lithium metal anode for batteries has attracted extensive attentions, but its application is restricted by the hazardous dendritic Li growth and dead Li formation. To address these issues, a novel Li anode is developed by infiltrating molten Li metal into conductive carbon cloth decorated with zinc oxide arrays. In carbonate-based electrolyte, the symmetric cell shows no short circuit over 1,500 h at 1 mA·cm^-2, and stable voltage profiles at 3 mA cm^-2 for ~ 300 h cycling. A low overpotential of ~ 243 mV over 350 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA·cm^-2 is achieved, compared to the seriously fluctuated voltage and fast short circuit in the cell using bare Li metal. Meanwhile, the asymmetric cell withstands 1,000 cycles at 10 C (1 C = 167 mAh·g^-1) compared to the 210 cycles for the cell using bare Li anode. The excellent performance is attributed to the well-regulated Li plating/stripping drive n from the formation of LiZn alloy on the wavy carb on fibers, resulting in the suppress!on of dendrite growth and pulverization of the Li electrode during cycling. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM metal anodes LITHIUM plating/stripping dendrite-free thermal infiltration CARBON cloth zinc oxide nanowire ARRAYS
Towards full demonstration of high areal loading sulfur cathode in lithium–sulfur batteries 预览
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作者 Long Kong Qi Jin +5 位作者 Xi-Tian Zhang Bo-Quan Li Jin-Xiu Chen Wan-Cheng Zhu Jia-Qi Huang Qiang Zhang 《能源化学:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第12期17-22,共6页
Lithium–sulfur(Li–S)batteries have been recognized as promising substitutes for current energy-storage technologies owing to their exceptional advantages in very high-energy density and excellent material sustainabi... Lithium–sulfur(Li–S)batteries have been recognized as promising substitutes for current energy-storage technologies owing to their exceptional advantages in very high-energy density and excellent material sustainability.The cathode with high sulfur areal loading is vital for the practical applications of Li–S batteries with very high energy density.However,the high sulfur loading in an electrode results in poor rate and cycling performances of batteries in most cases.Herein,we used diameters of 5.0(D5)and 13.0(D13)mm to probe the effect of electrodes with different sizes on the rate and cycling performances under a high sulfur loading(4.5 mg cm^-2).The cell with D5 sulfur cathode exhibits better rate and cycling performances comparing with a large(D13)cathode.Both the high concentration of lithium polysulfides and corrosion of lithium metal anode impede rapid kinetics of sulfur redox reactions,which results in inferior battery performance of the Li–S cell with large diameter cathode.This work highlights the importance of rational matching of the large sulfur cathode with a high areal sulfur loading,carbon modified separators,organic electrolyte,and Li metal anode in a pouch cell,wherein the sulfur redox kinetics and lithium metal protection should be carefully considered under the flooded lithium polysulfide conditions in a working Li–S battery. 展开更多
关键词 Lithium sulfur batteries High areal sulfur loading Lithium anode protection Sulfur redox reactions Polysulfide interm ediates
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Solid-liquid Phase Equilibria in the Process of Producing Lithium Hydroxide from Lithium Sulfate
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作者 GUO Jian WU Peng +3 位作者 LI Yaoyao ZHANG Min LI Wenxuan ZHOU Huan 《高等学校化学研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1018-1023,共6页
The solid-liquid phase equilibria in the process of producing lithium hydroxide from lithium sulfate at 283.15,298.15 and 323.15 K were studied via the isothermal solubility equilibrium method,and the solid species,ph... The solid-liquid phase equilibria in the process of producing lithium hydroxide from lithium sulfate at 283.15,298.15 and 323.15 K were studied via the isothermal solubility equilibrium method,and the solid species,phase diagrams,solution densities and pH were determined.The results show that four solid species of Na2SO4·10H2O,Na2SO4·2.5H2O,Na2SO4 and LiOH·H2O occurred in the system,among them,Na2SO4·2.5H2O was a new solid species not reported in the open literature,which was determined via chemical analysis,Karl Fischer water titration,X-ray diffraction(XRD),thermogravimetic analysis(TG)and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)testing.Based on the SLE data,one systemic process to produce LiOH·H2O from Li2SO4·H2O was proposed including two crystallization steps at lower and higher temperatures. 展开更多
关键词 Solid-liquid equilibrium Phase diagram Lithium hydroxide Lithium sulfate Sodium sulfate
平朔矿区粉煤灰中有价锂元素的浸出实验研究 预览
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作者 薄朋慧 李神勇 +2 位作者 吴士豪 陆青锋 秦身钧 《化学研究与应用》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期1351-1356,共6页
山西平朔矿区煤中发现伴生锂矿,且燃煤过程中元素Li二次富集,使得粉煤灰有可能成为宝贵锂资源的理想替代来源。为了提取富锂粉煤灰中有价元素Li,以平朔某发电厂粉煤灰为研究对象,使用X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF)和电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-... 山西平朔矿区煤中发现伴生锂矿,且燃煤过程中元素Li二次富集,使得粉煤灰有可能成为宝贵锂资源的理想替代来源。为了提取富锂粉煤灰中有价元素Li,以平朔某发电厂粉煤灰为研究对象,使用X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF)和电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)测定粉煤灰中常量和Li元素含量,采用NaCl焙烧—HCl浸出的方法,确定粉煤灰最佳焙烧、酸浸条件,并结合扫描电镜(SEM)对形貌特征进行表征。结果表明,粉煤灰中常量元素Si、Al占主体,有价元素Li较富集;矿物主要为莫来石和刚玉;粉煤灰在950℃、与NaCl助剂1∶2条件下焙烧,加入4mol·L^-1HCl在150℃、固液比为1∶20条件下酸浸4h,Li元素浸出效果最佳,可达62.31%。粉煤灰焙烧后形貌蓬松度较大,与焙烧前相比变化明显,有利于Li的高效浸出。 展开更多
关键词 粉煤灰 焙烧活化 浸出
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锂氦在钨中的行为及其对钨力学和热力学性质影响的第一性原理研究 预览
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作者 马容 张兆春 +1 位作者 郭海波 谢耀平 《材料导报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第24期4164-4169,共6页
为了预测长期锂化壁处理工艺对第一壁材料——钨的影响,本工作采用第一性原理计算,探讨锂、氦杂质原子在金属钨中的行为及其对钨金属材料力学和热力学性质的影响。计算结果表明,单一锂原子在钨晶体中倾向于占据替代位置,该替代锂原子和... 为了预测长期锂化壁处理工艺对第一壁材料——钨的影响,本工作采用第一性原理计算,探讨锂、氦杂质原子在金属钨中的行为及其对钨金属材料力学和热力学性质的影响。计算结果表明,单一锂原子在钨晶体中倾向于占据替代位置,该替代锂原子和位于间隙位置的氦或其他锂原子之间皆存在较强的正结合能,而且当多个间隙氦或锂原子聚集在替代锂原子周围时,体系仍然具有正结合能。对钨晶体含有锂或氦多原子聚集体力学性能(体弹模量、剪切模量、杨氏模量、泊松比、柯西压力)的计算结果表明,锂或氦多原子聚集体的出现将导致钨材料的力学强度降低,韧(展)性提高。采用准简谐Debye模型对含有锂或氦多原子聚集体的钨材料的吉布斯自由能、等容热容、熵等热力学性质的计算结果表明,锂或氦多原子聚集体的出现也将导致钨金属体系的热力学性质发生变化,这将对钨金属材料的温度分布、杂质浓度等产生一定的影响。 展开更多
关键词 第一性原理 力学性能 热力学性质
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Anionic polymerization initiated by lithium amides for preparing high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile
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作者 Xiaolin Shi Jingyang Jiang 《中国化学快报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期473-476,共4页
Lithium amides have been proved to be effective anionic initiators for the anionic polymerization of acrylonitrile to get high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile in this study. Polyacrylonitrile with weightaverage mol... Lithium amides have been proved to be effective anionic initiators for the anionic polymerization of acrylonitrile to get high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile in this study. Polyacrylonitrile with weightaverage molecular weight ranging from 1.02 × 10~6 g/mol to 1.23 ×10~6 g/mol (M_w/M_n= 1.9-2.2) could be prepared utilizing lithium amides derived from diisopropylamine, diethylamine, hexamethyldisilazane,dicyclohexylamine, and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine as initiators. The polymerization of acrylonitrile proceeded in a homogeneous manner in N,N-di methyl for mamide and insignificant contribution of side reactions was confirmed. 展开更多
关键词 ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION ACRYLONITRILE High molecular weight polymer Lithium AMIDES POLYACRYLONITRILE
Monolithic LiF or MgF2 lens-window-prism device for coherent 10.7 eV beam source with 1 MHz repetition rate
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作者 赵智刚 黒田健太 +3 位作者 原沢すゆみ 迟藤猛 辛埴 小林洋平 《中国光学快报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第5期53-56,共4页
A monolithic lens-window-prism (LWP) device, made of lithium fluoride (LiF) or magnesium fluoride (MgF2), was proposed. When either of the devices was fixed onto one end of a gas cell filled with Xe, it becomes a uwed... A monolithic lens-window-prism (LWP) device, made of lithium fluoride (LiF) or magnesium fluoride (MgF2), was proposed. When either of the devices was fixed onto one end of a gas cell filled with Xe, it becomes a uwedge-crystal”-like device and was used to convert a 1 MHz femtosecond 347 nm laser to its third harmonic radiation at 10.7 eV. This led to an improved beam profile and a more compact and less lossy configuration. A stable output power of ~11μW was demonstrated for 2 h using LiF-LWP. In addition, MgF2-LWP was also verified for its practicability at 10.7 eV. 展开更多
关键词 lens-window-prism(LWP) lithium fluoride(LiF) magnesium fluoride(MgF2)
Artificial solid electrolyte interphase based on polyacrylonitrile for homogenous and dendrite-free deposition of lithium metal
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作者 徐航宇 李泉 +4 位作者 潘弘毅 邱纪亮 曹文卓 禹习谦 李泓 《中国物理B:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第7期523-528,共6页
High chemical reactivity, large volume changes, and uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth have always been the key problems of lithium metal anodes.Coating has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to protect th... High chemical reactivity, large volume changes, and uncontrollable lithium dendrite growth have always been the key problems of lithium metal anodes.Coating has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to protect the lithium metal.In this work, the effects of polyacrylonitrile(PAN)-based coatings on electrodeposited lithium have been studied.Our results show that a PAN coating layer provides uniform and dendrite-free lithium deposition as well as better cycling performance with carbonate electrolyte.Notably, heat treatment of the PAN coating layer promotes the formation of larger deposit particle size and higher coulombic efficiency(85%).The compact coating layer of heat-treated PAN with a large Young modulus(82.7 GPa) may provide stable protection for the active lithium.Improved homogeneity of morphology and mechanical properties of heat-treated PAN contribute to the larger deposit particles.This work provides new feasibility to optimize the polymer coating through rational modification of polymers. 展开更多
关键词 LITHIUM deposition polymer coating artificial solid ELECTROLYTE INTERPHASE POLYACRYLONITRILE
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