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Characteristics of mountain glacier surge hazard:learning from a surge event in NE Pamir,China
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作者 YAO Xin Javed IQBAL +1 位作者 LI Ling-jing ZHOU Zheng-kai 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第7期1515-1533,共19页
Abnormal glacier movement is likely to result in canyon-type hazards chain,such as the barrier lake of Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon formed by glacier debris flow in October 2018 in China.Glacier hazard usually evolves ... Abnormal glacier movement is likely to result in canyon-type hazards chain,such as the barrier lake of Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon formed by glacier debris flow in October 2018 in China.Glacier hazard usually evolves from the glacier surge and may occur in a regular cycle.Understanding the characteristics and process of glacier surge is important for early hazard recognition and hazard assessment.Based on field investigations,remote sensing interpretations and SAR offset-tracking surveys,this study confirms a typical glacier surge in the northeast Pamir,and presents its characteristics and processes."Black ice"mixed moraines choking uplift and overflowing lateral marine are the most important scenic characteristics,which were formed under the conditions of stagnant glacier downstream and abundant super-glacial moraine.Glacier movement event can be divided into a five-period cycle including quiescent,inoculation,initiation,fracture and decline.This surge event lasted for about 300 days,initiated in February 2015 developed extensive fracturing zone in spring and early summer at maximum velocity of 10±0.95 m/day,declined after August 2015 and recovered to quiescent status in October 2015 for the next inoculation.The average height of glacier"receiving"area increased by 20-40 m with 2.7-3.6×10^8 m^3 ice transferred from glacier"reservoir",and this volume accumulation again require 50-100 years for glacier mass balance which gives approximately 100 years frequency of the glacier surge.Nevertheless,long-period increase of precipitation and temperature were favorable for the occurrence,hydrological instability is the direct triggering mechanism,and while the Glacier Lake Outburst Flood(GLOF)hazards are unlikely to occur with this surge. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER SURGES MORAINE GLACIER hazards Mountain GLACIER GLACIER monitoring Offset-tracking SAR
1975-2016年天山中段阿克苏河流域冰川变化分析(英文)
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作者 张齐飞 陈亚宁 +3 位作者 李稚 李玉朋 向燕芸 卞薇 《地理学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第6期984-1000,共17页
In this study, we analyzed glacier changes in the Aksu River Basin during the period 1975–2016, based on Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI imagery analysis and the Chinese Glacier Inventory(CGI). The results showed that the to... In this study, we analyzed glacier changes in the Aksu River Basin during the period 1975–2016, based on Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI imagery analysis and the Chinese Glacier Inventory(CGI). The results showed that the total number, area, and volume of the studied glaciers in the Aksu River Basin decreased by 202(7.65%), 965.7 km2(25.88%), and 74.85–78.52 km3(23.72%–24.3%), respectively. The rate of glacier retreat in the basin was slower in the north, northwest and west, but reached the highest in the east(measuring 0.86% yr-1). Furthermore, there were significant regional differences in the distribution and change of glaciers, the Kumalak River Basin had the largest glacier number and area, about 63.15% and 76.47% of the studied basin, and the rate of glacier retreat in the Kumalak River Basin was 0.65% yr-1, it was higher than the Toxkan River Basin which reached 0.57% yr-1. We found the shrinkage rate of glacier for different periods in the past 41 years, during 1975–1990 the glaciers showed the greatest retreat, while the rate of glacier area retreat slowed down significantly from 1990 to 2000. In recent 16 years since 2000, the rate of glacier retreat in the Toxkan River Basin was higher compared with 1990–2000. The RGI50-13.04920 glacier of Kumalak River Basin had been in a state of retreat since 1990. Over the past 41 years, the temperature and precipitation in the Aksu River Basin increased obviously, and the warming temperatures were clearly the main reason for glacier retreat in the region, while the increased precipitation in the mountain area may have a direct relation with the retreating rate of glaciers. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER change GLACIER RETREAT REMOTE SENSING Aksu River BASIN
Modelling Chorabari Lake outburst flood, Kedarnath, India
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作者 Mohammd RAFIQ Shakil Ahmad ROMSHOO +1 位作者 Anoop Kumar MISHRA Faizan JALAL 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第1期64-76,共13页
In this study,the Glacier Lake Outburst Flood(GLOF)that occurred over Kedarnath in June 2013 was modeled using integrated observations from the field and Remote Sensing(RS).The lake breach parameters such as area,dept... In this study,the Glacier Lake Outburst Flood(GLOF)that occurred over Kedarnath in June 2013 was modeled using integrated observations from the field and Remote Sensing(RS).The lake breach parameters such as area,depth,breach,and height have been estimated from the field observations and Remote Sensing(RS)data.A number of modelling approaches,including Snow Melt Runoff Model(SRM),Modified Single Flow model(MSF),Watershed Management System(WMS),Simplified Dam Breach Model(SMPDBK)and BREACH were used to model the GLOF.Estimations from SRM produced a runoff of about 22.7 m3 during 16–17,June 2013 over Chorabari Lake.Bathymetry data reported that the lake got filled to its maximum capacity(3822.7 m3)due to excess discharge.Hydrograph obtained from the BREACH model revealed a peak discharge of about 1699 m3/s during an intense water flow episode that lasted for 10–15 minutes on 17 th June 2013.Excess discharge from heavy rainfall and snowmelt into the lake increased its hydrostatic pressure and the lake breached cataclysmically. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER LAKE OUTBURST FLOOD GIS MODELLING Snow Melt RUNOFF Kedarnath GLACIER LAKE
中国天山冰川生态服务功能及价值评估
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作者 张正勇 刘琳 +2 位作者 何新林 李忠勤 王璞玉 《地理学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第1期101-114,共14页
Mountain glaciers, which perform a unique and irreplaceable ecological service, provide the material basis and characteristic cultural foundation of the ecological environment and sustainable socio-economic developmen... Mountain glaciers, which perform a unique and irreplaceable ecological service, provide the material basis and characteristic cultural foundation of the ecological environment and sustainable socio-economic development in arid areas. However, few studies have estimated the service value of glaciers in regulating ecological environment and providing human welfare. According to the statistics of the First and Second Chinese Glacier Inventory(FCGI/SCGI), this study analyzed the variations in glacier area and ice volume in the Tianshan Mountains in China and modeled the ecosystem service function of mountain glaciers. The service value per unit area and equivalent factor methods were combined to determine the annual value of the ecological service provided by glaciers in the study area. The results show that:(1) In the period 1970–2010, the glacier area decreased by 1274 km~2(the ratio of area shrinkage was 13.9%) and the annual average decrease in ice volume was 4.08′10~9 m~3. The increase in glacier area at high altitudes(> 5200 m) may be due to the fact that glacier accumulation caused by increasing precipitation is greater than glacier melting caused by rising temperatures.(2) The annual value of the ecological service provided by glaciers in the study area is 60.2 billion yuan. The values of climate regulation, hydrological regulation, and freshwater resource supply account for 66.4%, 21.6%, and 9.3% of the total value respectively. The annual value of the ecological service provided by hydroelectric power is 350 million yuan.(3) From a comparative analysis of the glaciers, forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems, the supply of freshwater resources/physical production and ecological regulation represent the main contributions of the four types of system, and the ecosystem service value of glaciers per unit area is higher than that of other types of ecosystem. This research will improve the understanding of the impact of glaciers on human welfare and maintenance of the ecological environment and will promote 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER ECOLOGICAL function service value ESTIMATE TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS
西风和季风影响区冰川雪中细菌数量和群落组成与气候环境关系
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作者 刘晓波 邢婷婷 +4 位作者 刘勇勤 徐柏青 赵华标 王宁练 沈亮 《冰川冻土》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期197-214,共18页
青藏高原冰川是全球变化研究的热点地区,但对高原冰雪细菌与气候环境之间的关系还缺乏研究。选取西风影响下的新疆慕士塔格冰川、木吉冰川和印度季风影响下的尼泊尔雅拉冰川进行冰雪细菌研究,以揭示西风和季风影响区冰川雪中细菌丰度和... 青藏高原冰川是全球变化研究的热点地区,但对高原冰雪细菌与气候环境之间的关系还缺乏研究。选取西风影响下的新疆慕士塔格冰川、木吉冰川和印度季风影响下的尼泊尔雅拉冰川进行冰雪细菌研究,以揭示西风和季风影响区冰川雪中细菌丰度和群落组成特征以及细菌与区域气候环境的关系。研究发现:受西风影响的慕士塔格冰川和木吉冰川的主要细菌类群为Bacteroidetes和Betaproteobacteria;受印度季风影响的雅拉冰川的细菌优势类群为Betaproteobacteria和Cyanobacteria。表明西风和季风影响区冰川雪中细菌具有不同的群落组成。此外,通过比对16S rRNA,发现三个冰川分离的细菌与分离自海洋、湖泊、土壤、沙漠等寒冷环境的细菌具有很高的相似度。位于西风带的慕士塔格和木吉冰川雪中细菌Shannon指数高于位于印度季风区的雅拉冰川。印度季风带的雅拉冰川细菌群落组成受季节的影响明显而西风带的慕士塔格冰川则受季节影响比较小。 展开更多
关键词 青藏高原 冰川 细菌 群落 多样性 气候环境
Dynamic changes in lakes in the Hoh Xil region before and after the 2011 outburst of Zonag Lake
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作者 LIU Wen-hui XIE Chang-wei +6 位作者 ZHAO Lin WU Tong-hua WANG Wu ZHANG Yu-xin YANG Gui-qian ZHU Xiao-fan YUE Guang-yang 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第5期1098-1110,共13页
Zonag, Kusai, Hedin Noel and Yanhu Lakes are independent inland lakes in the Hoh Xil region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In September2011, Zonag Lake burst after the water level had increased for many years. Floods f... Zonag, Kusai, Hedin Noel and Yanhu Lakes are independent inland lakes in the Hoh Xil region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In September2011, Zonag Lake burst after the water level had increased for many years. Floods flowed through Kusai and Hedin Noel Lakes into Yanhu Lake;since then, the four small endorheic catchments merged into one larger catchment. This hydrological process caused the rapid shrinkage of Zonag Lake and continuous expansion of Yanhu Lake. In this study,based on satellite images, meteorological data and field investigations, we examined the dynamic changes in the four lakes and analyzed the influencing factors. The results showed that before 2011, the trends in the four lake areas were similar and displayed several stages. The change in the area of Zonag Lake corresponded well to the change in annual precipitation(AP), but the magnitude of the change was less than that of a non-glacier-fed lake. Although increased precipitation was the dominant factor that caused Zonag Lake to expand, increased glacier melting and permafrost thawing due to climate warming also had significant effects. After the 2011 outburst of Zonag Lake, due to the increasing AP and accelerating glacier melting, the increases in water volume of the three lakes were absorbed by Yanhu Lake, and Yanhu Lake expanded considerably. According to the rapid growth rates in water level and lake area, Yanhu Lake is likely to burst in 1-2 years. 展开更多
关键词 Dynamic CHANGE LAKE areas Influencing factors GLACIER CHANGE PERMAFROST thawing Zonag LAKE
Integrated impacts of climate change on glacier tourism 预览
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作者 WANG Shi-Jin ZHOU Lan-Yue 《气候变化研究进展:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第2期71-79,共9页
Glacier tourism is an important type of nature-based tourism with great global potential. However, glacial landscapes and environments are seriously affected by global warming. This study used a scoping review method ... Glacier tourism is an important type of nature-based tourism with great global potential. However, glacial landscapes and environments are seriously affected by global warming. This study used a scoping review method to explore integrated impacts of climate change on glaciers from the academic literature. All reviewed literature included a wide range of both research and non-research-based data or information. All literature was reviewed by summarizing findings of relevant research. It showed that climate warming has led to rapid melting and retreat of glacier landscapes, which has resulted in a huge impact on economic and social systems. The findings indicated that some glacial landscapes are declining in aesthetics or attractiveness while some landscapes face the prospect of sustained decline or even disappearance. This not only affects glacial cultural appreciation or mountain residents' beliefs, but increases the difficulty in entering and experiencing glaciers. Some points of tourism even face the risk of glacial disaster. Rapid glacial retreat or even disappearance will bring a loss of tourism revenues. At present, it is urgent to anticipate and adapt to these integrated impacts. In short, this study provides a general review of the impacts of climate change on glacial tourism and also some references for the adaptation of future glacial tourism to climate change. 展开更多
关键词 CLIMATE change GLACIER TOURISM INTEGRATED IMPACTS
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Assessment of Water Provenances in Koxkar Glacier Region at the South Slope of Mt. Tianshan, China 预览
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作者 Wang Jian Xu Junli +1 位作者 Han Haidong Xu Xiaohui 《气象与环境研究:英文版》 CAS 2019年第5期81-86,92共7页
Various water samples were collected for electrical conductivity (EC) and δ^18O analysis,and the proportion and contribution of atmospheric precipitation,glacier ice and shallow groundwater to discharge in the Koxkar... Various water samples were collected for electrical conductivity (EC) and δ^18O analysis,and the proportion and contribution of atmospheric precipitation,glacier ice and shallow groundwater to discharge in the Koxkar glacier basin at the south slope of the Tianshan Mountains were studied.The results show that glacial ice-water recharge was dominant,accounting for 72.11% of the annual runoff.It also had a significant positive correlation with temperature during the warm season (from May to September).However,glacier ice ablation replenishment still existed when the temperature in the cold season was below the critical temperature of 0 ℃.This could be that the heat generated by the friction between the ice body and the ice bed during the subglacial ice sliding process led ice to melt,what's more,the stored water in the geometric passages inside and below the glacier could slowly release.Groundwater recharge accounted for 16.38% of the total runoff.The supplement was small and its variation range was relatively small in the cold season.But in the warm season,the amount of groundwater recharge increased and changed drastically.It might be that the seasonal frozen soil in the basin was widely developed and was affected by temperature changes.Atmospheric precipitation replenishment only accounted for 11.51%.The daily precipitation recharge river water had a significant response to regional precipitation,but there was hysteresis in time,and there was still precipitation recharge runoff even in the absence of precipitation. 展开更多
关键词 WATER PROVENANCE Conductivity Δ^18O THREE-COMPONENT mixing models Koxkar glacier
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A multi-model analysis of glacier equilibrium line altitudes in western China during the last glacial maximum
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作者 Dabang JIANG Yeyi LIU Xianmei LANG 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期1241-1255,共15页
Based on numerical experiments undertaken with nine climate models, the glacier equilibrium line altitudes(ELAs)in western China during the last glacial maximum(LGM) are investigated to deepen our understanding of the... Based on numerical experiments undertaken with nine climate models, the glacier equilibrium line altitudes(ELAs)in western China during the last glacial maximum(LGM) are investigated to deepen our understanding of the surface environment on the Tibetan Plateau. Relative to the preindustrial period, the summer surface air temperatures decrease by 4–8°C while the annual precipitation decreases by an average of 25% across the Tibetan Plateau during the LGM. Under the joint effects of reductions in summer temperature and annual precipitation, the LGM ELAs in western China are lowered by magnitudes that vary with regions. The ELAs in the southern margin and northwestern Tibetan Plateau decline by approximately 1100 m;the central hinterland, by 650–800 m;and the eastern part, by 550–800 m, with a downward trend from southwest to northeast. The reduction in ELAs is no more than 650 m in the Tian Shan Mountains within China and approximately 500–600 m in the Qilian Mountains and Altai Mountains. The high-resolution models to reproduce the low values of no more than 500 m in ELA reductions in the central Tibetan Plateau, which are consistent with the proxy records from glacier remains. The accumulation zones of the Tibetan Plateau glaciers are mainly located in the marginal mountains during the LGM and have areas 2–5 times larger than those of the modern glaciers but still do not reach the central part. 展开更多
关键词 LAST GLACIAL maximum Western China Equilibrium line ALTITUDES GLACIER Simulation
Glacier extent changes and possible causes in the Hala Lake Basin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
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作者 LI Dong-Sheng CUI Bu-Li +2 位作者 WANG Ying XIAO Bei JIANG Bao-Fu 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第7期1571-1583,共13页
Glacier is a common sensitivity indicator of environmental and global climate change.Examining the relationship between glacier area and climate change will help reveal glacier change mechanisms and future trends.Glac... Glacier is a common sensitivity indicator of environmental and global climate change.Examining the relationship between glacier area and climate change will help reveal glacier change mechanisms and future trends.Glacier changes are also of great significance to the regulation of regional water resources.This study selected the Hala Lake Basin in the northeastern Qinhai-Tibet Plateau as a study area,and examined the relationships between the temporal and spatial change of glaciers in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and climate change based on remote sensing imagery,climatological data,and topographic data during the past 30 years.Results showed that glacier area in the Hala Lake basin fluctuated and decreased from106.24 km2 in 1986 to 78.84 km2 in 2015,with a decreasing rate of 0.94 km2·yr-1.The number of glacier patches,mean patch area,and largest patch index all decreased from 1986 to 2015,while the splitting index increased from 1986 to 2015,indicating that the landscape fragmentation of glacier in the Hala Lake Basin was increasing significantly during the study period.Glacier area change was mainly concentrated in the slopes>25°with an altitude of 4500-5000 m,and the retreating rate of glacier of sunny slope was obviously higher than that of shady slope.Geometric center of glacier in the basin moved from southwest to northeast towards high altitude.Results of the response of glacier extent to climate change showed that temperature was the dominant factor affecting glacier area dynamic change in the Hala Lake Basin.It is predicted that in future several years,the glacier area will decrease and fragment continually as a result of global warming on the Tibetan Plateau. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER extent Climate change Hala LAKE Basin Qinghai-Tibet PLATEAU
The response between glacier evolution and eco-geological environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 预览
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作者 Xi-yong Sun Rui-jiang Zhang +4 位作者 Wei Huang Ang Sun Liang-jun Lin Hong-gen Xu De-cai Jiang 《中国地质(英文)》 2019年第1期1-7,共7页
Based on the remote sensing survey and monitoring results of snow lines on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the authors analyzed the following eco-geological factors such as water resources, permafrost, desertification, wet... Based on the remote sensing survey and monitoring results of snow lines on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the authors analyzed the following eco-geological factors such as water resources, permafrost, desertification, wetlands, lake, geological disasters, sea-level rising, earthquake, etc., affected by the change of snow lines over the past 40 years, and discuss the response between glacier evolution and the eco-geological environment preliminarily. 展开更多
关键词 Qinghai-Tibet Plateau GLACIER EVOLUTION Ecological ENVIRONMENT GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT RESPONSE
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Glacier mapping based on Chinese high-resolution remote sensing GF-1 satellite and topographic data 预览
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作者 LiLi Yan Jian Wang 《寒旱区科学:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期218-225,共8页
The precise glacier boundary is a fundamental requirement for glacier inventory,the assessment of climate change and water management in remote mountain areas.However,some glaciers in mountain areas are covered by deb... The precise glacier boundary is a fundamental requirement for glacier inventory,the assessment of climate change and water management in remote mountain areas.However,some glaciers in mountain areas are covered by debris.The high spatial resolution images bring opportunities in mapping debris-covered glaciers.To discuss the capability of Chinese GaoFen-1 satellite lacking the short wave infrared band and thermal infrared band in mapping glaciers,this study distinguished supraglacial terrain from surrounding debris by combining GaoFen-1(GF-1)wide-field-view(WFV)images,the ratio of the thermal infrared imagery and morphometric parameters(DEM and slope)with 30 m resolution.The overall accuracy of 90.94%indicated that this method was effective for mapping supraglacial terrain in mountain areas.Comparing this result with the combination of GF-1 WFV and low-resolution morphometric parameters shows that a high-quality DEM and the thermal infrared band enhanced the accuracy of glacier mapping especially debris-covered ice in steep terrain.The user's and producer's accuracies of glacier area were also improved from 89.67%and 85.95%to 92.83%and 90.34%,respectively.GF data is recommended for mapping heavily debris-covered glaciers and will be combined with SAR data for future studies. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER MAPPING GaoFen-1 SATELLITE HIGH-QUALITY DEM MORPHOMETRIC parameters debris-covered glaciers
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北极Austre Lovénbreen和Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中金属元素分布特征和来源研究 预览
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作者 王丹赫 马红梅 林建伟 《极地研究》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期157-167,共11页
北极斯瓦尔巴德(Svalbard)群岛是研究人类活动对全球生态环境影响的重要地区之一,而了解该地生态环境的现状对揭示人类活动影响下全球生态环境的变化具有重要的科学意义。为此,本研究采集了位于Svalbard群岛新奥尔松(Ny-Alesund)的Austr... 北极斯瓦尔巴德(Svalbard)群岛是研究人类活动对全球生态环境影响的重要地区之一,而了解该地生态环境的现状对揭示人类活动影响下全球生态环境的变化具有重要的科学意义。为此,本研究采集了位于Svalbard群岛新奥尔松(Ny-Alesund)的Austre Lovénbreen和Pedersenbreen冰川前沿的表层土壤,对元素Ni、Pb、V、Cu、Zn、Mn、Al和Fe的含量和分布特征进行了研究,并对这些金属元素的来源进行了初步探讨。结果表明,Austre Lovénbreen冰川表层土壤中金属元素平均含量表现为Cu<Pb<Ni<V<Zn<Mn<Al<Fe,Pedersenbreen冰川表层土壤中金属元素的平均含量表现为Ni<Pb<V<Cu<Zn<Mn<Al<Fe。Austre Lovénbreen和Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中金属元素的变异系数值分别位于0.13—0.45和0.12—0.98。Austre Lovénbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Ni、Pb、V、Mn、Al和Fe等元素的平均含量与Pedersenbreen冰川相近,但Pedersenbreen冰川前沿的表层土壤中Cu和Zn的平均含量要远远高于Austre Lovénbreen冰川。Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Pb的高富集因子点靠近人类活动区域。经主成分分析,Austre Lovénbreen冰川和Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Ni、V、Al和Fe源于母岩风化,Mn除来源于母岩风化外还可能受到了人类活动的影响。Austre Lovénbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Pb源于母岩风化,但Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Pb除母岩风化源外还可能受到人为活动的影响。Austre Lovénbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Cu和Zn源于母岩风化,而Pedersenbreen冰川前沿表层土壤中Cu和Zn可能来源于土壤风化和母岩输送过程中的元素分馏。 展开更多
关键词 北极 冰川 土壤 金属元素 富集因子 主成分 来源
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帕隆藏布流域冰湖变化及危险性评估 预览
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作者 刘娟 姚晓军 +3 位作者 高永鹏 祁苗苗 段红玉 张大弘 《湖泊科学》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期1132-1143,共12页
冰湖作为区域气候变化的灵敏指示器和主要冰川灾害的启动器,认识其空间分布及变化特征对探讨冰湖对气候变化的响应规律及冰湖溃决危险性评估具有重要意义.基于19681980年地形图数据和1994—2016年Landsat TM/OLI遥感影像资料,综合利用RS... 冰湖作为区域气候变化的灵敏指示器和主要冰川灾害的启动器,认识其空间分布及变化特征对探讨冰湖对气候变化的响应规律及冰湖溃决危险性评估具有重要意义.基于19681980年地形图数据和1994—2016年Landsat TM/OLI遥感影像资料,综合利用RS、GIS技术和数理统计方法分析帕隆藏布流域面积≥0.01 km^2冰湖时空分布及其动态变化,并对潜在危险性冰湖进行判别和评估.结果表明:2016年帕隆藏布流域共有冰湖351个,面积50.48 km^2,且面积和数量分别以面积>1 km^2和面积<0.1 km^2的冰湖为主,这些冰湖主要分布于海拔2800~5400 m之间.近50年来帕隆藏布流域冰湖总体呈数量增多、面积增加态势;海拔<3000 m的冰湖相对稳定,而海拔>4500 m的冰湖数量和面积增加则相对迅速.近50年间帕隆藏布流域冰川面积减少591.34 km^2,气候变暖导致的冰川末端退缩和冰川融水增加为冰湖形成和扩张提供了发育空间和物质来源.切毛措、光谢错等9个冰湖为潜在危险性冰湖,预计未来一段时间内帕隆藏布流域冰湖溃决可能处于活跃阶段,其形成和暴发也将更加频繁. 展开更多
关键词 冰湖 危险性评估 冰川 帕隆藏布流域
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近20a西喀喇昆仑地区吉尔吉特河流域冰川面积变化及其对气候变化的响应 预览
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作者 张威 王宁练 +1 位作者 李想 刘凯 《山地学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期347-358,共12页
冰川被誉为“固态水库”,对区域生态环境和发展至关重要。喀喇昆仑山地区的冰川出现了退缩停滞乃至前进的现象,被称为“喀喇昆仑异常”。为探明西喀喇昆仑地区吉尔吉特河(Gilgit River)流域的冰川面积变化及其影响因素,本文基于1993、2... 冰川被誉为“固态水库”,对区域生态环境和发展至关重要。喀喇昆仑山地区的冰川出现了退缩停滞乃至前进的现象,被称为“喀喇昆仑异常”。为探明西喀喇昆仑地区吉尔吉特河(Gilgit River)流域的冰川面积变化及其影响因素,本文基于1993、2000、2016年三个时期的多景LandsatTM/ETM+/OLI遥感数据,通过目视解译法提取三期冰川边界。结果表明:(1)1993—2016年,吉尔吉特河流域冰川面积共萎缩了45.82±9.07km^2,约占1993年冰川总面积的4.07±0.80%。其中,1993—2000年冰川面积的年均萎缩率为0.19±0.02%,2000—2016年冰川面积的年均萎缩率为0.17±0.03%,即近15a来研究区冰川面积萎缩呈微弱的减缓趋势。(2)1993—2016年研究区内共有12条冰川发生过前进现象,其中G073768E36822N(冰川编码)冰川发生了较为快速的前进,在1996—1999年末端前进了477m,前进速率为159m·a^-1。(3)近40a来,吉尔吉特河流域的气温呈持续上升趋势,降水呈先减少后增加趋势。气温升高是研究区冰川退缩的主要原因,降水的增加缓解了因升温而导致的冰川面积萎缩。 展开更多
关键词 冰川 吉尔吉特河流域 气候变化 遥感
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青藏高原及周边地区近期冰川状态失常与灾变风险
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作者 姚檀栋 余武生 +9 位作者 邬光剑 徐柏青 杨威 赵华标 王伟财 李生海 王宁练 李忠勤 刘时银 游超 《科学通报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第27期2770-2782,共13页
青藏高原及周边地区是除南、北极地区之外全球最重要的冰川资源富集地.近百年来,青藏高原及周边地区冰川整体处于缓慢退缩状态,但20世纪90年代以来,这种状态发生了根本变化.以东帕米尔-喀喇昆仑-西昆仑地区冰川相对稳定甚至部分冰川前... 青藏高原及周边地区是除南、北极地区之外全球最重要的冰川资源富集地.近百年来,青藏高原及周边地区冰川整体处于缓慢退缩状态,但20世纪90年代以来,这种状态发生了根本变化.以东帕米尔-喀喇昆仑-西昆仑地区冰川相对稳定甚至部分冰川前进为特征的'喀喇昆仑异常'是青藏高原及周边地区冰川状态失常的一种表现形式;而青藏高原东南地区冰川加速退缩则是这一地区冰川失常的另一种表现形式.高海拔地区的异常升温是青藏高原及周边地区冰川状态失常的重要驱动力.另外,这种冰川状态失常还与气候变暖背景下的西风和季风大气环流过程有关.随着全球变暖的加剧,冰川状态失常直接导致冰崩、冰湖溃决等灾变风险的增加.应对青藏高原及周边地区冰川状态失常的不利影响,需要进一步加强冰川变化监测与研究,加大冰川灾害防范力度. 展开更多
关键词 冰川 状态失常 灾变风险 青藏高原
Assessment of glacier stored water in Karakoram Himalaya using satellite remote sensing and field investigation
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作者 Kamal Kant SINGH Harendra Singh NEGI Dhiraj Kumar SINGH 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期836-849,共14页
Karakoram Himalaya(KH) has continental climatic conditions and possesses largest concentration of glaciers outside the polar regions. The melt water from these glaciers is a major contributor to the Indus river. In th... Karakoram Himalaya(KH) has continental climatic conditions and possesses largest concentration of glaciers outside the polar regions. The melt water from these glaciers is a major contributor to the Indus river. In this study, various methods have been used to estimate the ice volume in the Karakoram Range of glaciers such as Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation(COSI-Corr) method and Area-Volume relations. Landsat 8 satellite data has been used to generate the ice displacement, velocity and thickness map. Our study for 558 Karakoram glaciers revealed that the average ice thickness in Karakoram is 90 m. Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) survey has been conducted in one of the KH glacier i.e. Saser La glacier and the collected GPR data is used for the validation of satellite derived thickness map. GPR measured glacier thickness values are found comparable with satellite estimated values with RMSE of 4.3 m. The total ice volume of the Karakoram glaciers is estimated to be 1607±19 km3(1473±17 Gt), which is equivalent to 1473±17 km3 of water equivalent. Present study also covers the analysis of glacier surface displacement, velocity and ice thickness values with reference to glacier mean slope. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER COSI-Corr KARAKORAM Range Ground PENETRATING RADAR GPR Volume-Area
Climate change and its impacts on mountain glaciers during 1960–2017 in western China 预览
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作者 LIU Yinge WANG Ninglian +1 位作者 ZHANG Junhui WANG Lingang 《干旱区科学:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第4期537-550,共14页
Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change. In this paper, we systematically analyzed and discussed the responses of glaciers to climate change during 1960–2017 in western China by the methods of least ... Mountain glaciers are highly sensitive to climate change. In this paper, we systematically analyzed and discussed the responses of glaciers to climate change during 1960–2017 in western China by the methods of least squares and correlation analysis. Results show that the maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, and precipitation significantly increased in western China at the rates of 0.32°C/10 a, 0.48°C/10 a, 0.39°C/10 a, and 11.20 mm/10 a, respectively. However, the wind speed, hours of sunshine, snowfall, and snowy days displayed decreasing trends at the rates of –0.53 m/(s·10 a), 3.72 h/10 a, –2.90 mm/10 a, and –0.10 d/10 a, respectively. The annual percentage of glacier area decreased by approximately 0.42%, and the average glacier area decreased by 2.76 km~2/a. Meanwhile, glacial shrinkages were greater in the Altay Mountains, Tanggula Mountains, and Qilian Mountains than in the other mountainous regions. Glacier accumulation decreased while melt volume increased at a rate of 2.7×10~4 m~3/a. The area of melt volume was 1.3 times that of the glacier accumulation area. The glacier mass balance(GMB) decreased substantially at a rate of –14.0 mm/a, whereas the equilibrium line altitude(ELA) showed an increasing trend at a rate of 0.5 mm/a. After 1997, the mass was smaller than –500.0 mm, indicating a huge loss in glaciers. Furthermore, relationships between ELA and GMB and various climatic factors were established. Temperature and precipitation demonstrated a significantly negative correlation, whereas wind speed and snowy days had significantly positive correlations with GMB. Snowy days also exhibited a remarkably negative correlation with ELA. The strong warming trend and less snowy days were thought to be the main factors leading to glacial melting, whereas the increase in precipitation, and reductions of sunshine hours and wind speed might slow glacial melting. 展开更多
关键词 temperature PRECIPITATION climate TREND GLACIER variation IMPACTS western China
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利用新型C波段雷达卫星研究南伊内里切克冰川运动特征
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作者 张晓博 赵学胜 +1 位作者 葛大庆 刘斌 《武汉大学学报:信息科学版》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期429-435,共7页
利用新型C波段Sentinel-1卫星获取的2015年2月至2017年2月期间的影像数据,研究分析了天山中部南伊内里切克冰川不同时段的运动特征。利用偏移量追踪技术计算不同时间段冰川位移,首先采用三步配准的方法进行主辅影像高精度整体配准,然后... 利用新型C波段Sentinel-1卫星获取的2015年2月至2017年2月期间的影像数据,研究分析了天山中部南伊内里切克冰川不同时段的运动特征。利用偏移量追踪技术计算不同时间段冰川位移,首先采用三步配准的方法进行主辅影像高精度整体配准,然后基于归一化互相关(normalized cross correlation,NCC)算法通过调整窗口参数精确估算局部偏移量,进一步分离得到冰川移动信息。监测结果表明:(1)在空间分布上,狭长的冰舌区是冰川主要的高速流动区域,冰舌区底部流速小于上部,两侧流速小于中间,末端流速明显减缓。(2)在季节变化上,冰川运动速率与温度变化趋势一致,在5月至8月期间运动速率最快,沿剖面线的最高速率达49 cm/d;在11月至次年2月期间运动最为缓慢,速率为25~30 cm/d左右。(3)在年度变化上,2015年夏季的运动速率比2016年整体高约1~3 cm/d,其他季节则没有明显差异。与高分辨率L波段PALSAR-2影像的监测结果进行定量对比分析时,将冰舌区的像元进行抽稀后统计,得到两种数据获取的运动速率之差的均值为3.48 cm/d,标准差为±3.78 cm/d,证实了南伊内里切克冰川运动监测结果的可靠性。 展开更多
关键词 南伊内里切克 冰川 运动速率 Sentinel-1 偏移量追踪
Glacier reconstruction of La Covacha Massif in Sierra de Gredos(central Spain) during the Last Glacial Maximum
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作者 Néstor CAMPOS David PALACIOS Luis M.TANARRO 《山地科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第6期1336-1352,共17页
A paleoglacier reconstruction during the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM) is presented for a high mountain area of La Covacha massif in Sierra de Gredos(Iberian Central System) in central Spain. The moraines that, according ... A paleoglacier reconstruction during the Last Glacial Maximum(LGM) is presented for a high mountain area of La Covacha massif in Sierra de Gredos(Iberian Central System) in central Spain. The moraines that, according with the previous literature, had formed during the global LGM, were mapped through photo interpretation of digital aerial photographs and 3D images and detailed field surveys. The topography of the paleoglaciers was estimated using a simple steady-state model that assumed a perfectly plastic ice rheology, reconstructing the theoretical ice profiles and obtaining the ice thickness of the glaciers during the LGM. The reconstruction of the glaciers was carried out using automated and semi-automated physically-based models, obtaining more realistic results with semi-automated models. According to our study, the paleoglaciers in the study area covered an area of 34.79 km~2 during the global LGM, with a maximum ice thickness of 366 meters in La Vega gorge, a total volume of 34.25 × 108 m~3 and a mean paleoELA of 1932 meters. Most of the ice(~82%) was in paleoglaciers facing north, and the rest was in paleoglaciers with other orientations. This emphasizes the importance of orientation in relation to glacier dynamics and ice accumulation. The results obtained in the calculation of paleoELAs during the global LGM in Gredos are average compared to the Iberian mountains of the Northwest where the values were much lower, and with respect to those of the Southwest, much higher. This demonstrates the importance of the exposure of Mediterranean mountains to the humidity sources coming from the NW during the global LGM, as is the case at present. 展开更多
关键词 GLACIER RECONSTRUCTION Paleoglacier ICE thickness EQUILIBRIUM line ALTITUDE Iberian Central System
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