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7-12岁儿童颈椎关节突关节的数字化三维形态研究 预览
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作者 刘路 王星 +6 位作者 康小燕 李贵花 李筱贺 高尚 蔡永强 张少杰 李志军 《中国组织工程研究》 CAS 北大核心 2020年第6期877-881,共5页
背景:国内外学者研究均证实关节突关节面的不对称性和关节突关节角的不对称性均可导致关节退变、关节滑脱及相应的病变,但目前的研究均集中于成人。已证实随着年龄的增长,关节突关节的病变如小关节紊乱、绞锁等均是引起颈椎疼痛、失稳... 背景:国内外学者研究均证实关节突关节面的不对称性和关节突关节角的不对称性均可导致关节退变、关节滑脱及相应的病变,但目前的研究均集中于成人。已证实随着年龄的增长,关节突关节的病变如小关节紊乱、绞锁等均是引起颈椎疼痛、失稳、滑脱、骨性关节炎及神经、血管受压甚至致瘫等的最常见原因之一。对于儿童关节突关节的相关研究则甚少。目的:通过收集7-12岁儿童颈椎CT影像扫描数据,行三维重建并行颈椎关节突关节的形态测量与分析,以探索关节突关节形态发育特征及增龄变化规律,为临床儿童颈椎病的早期诊断与治疗提供理论依据。方法:收集2013年9月至2015年9月间在内蒙古医科大学第一、二附属医院及内蒙古国际蒙医医院影像科行儿童颈椎多层螺旋CT扫描的影像资料99例,将原始以DICOM格式数据导入Mimics软件进行三维重建,并在三维模型上行形态学测量。试验于2015-03-11经内蒙古医科大学医学伦理委员会批准,批准号YKD2015049。结果与结论:①儿童颈椎关节突关节面长总体随年龄的增长呈递增趋势,随椎序的增长呈递减趋势;②关节突关节面宽中上关节突关节面宽呈V型,下关节突关节面宽随椎序递增呈增大趋势;③关节突关节结间距总体呈"尖峰"状;④关节突关节冠状位角整体呈"V"型;⑤关节突关节矢状位角呈倒"V"趋势;⑥提示7-12岁儿童颈椎节段关节突关节的形态学特征不存在关节突的不对称性。 展开更多
关键词 颈椎 关节突关节 形态学特征 关节突关节角 儿童
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How Do Commercial Children’s Foods Influence Their Growth and Development? A Map of Commercially Available Children’s Foods in Honduras 预览
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作者 Adriana Santana Hernández Sofía Raquel Mejía Moti?o +1 位作者 Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio Cindy Mérida 《食品与营养科学(英文)》 2019年第2期174-187,共14页
Background: The premature consumption of processed foods with high sugar and sodium content over the course of life has been associated with an increased risk of suffering from chronic diseases starting in adolescence... Background: The premature consumption of processed foods with high sugar and sodium content over the course of life has been associated with an increased risk of suffering from chronic diseases starting in adolescence or early adulthood. Methods: There was an examination of the nutritional labelling of processed products for young children (n = 140) available in the Honduran market to evaluate their nutritional quality with regard to sodium and sugar content, pursuant to various international recommendations. Results: 54% of the products evaluated derive more than 20% of their calories from sugar. The categories that to a large degree exceed the recommended sugar content range are fruit drinks (80%) and dessert purees (65%). The average price per product serving is lower than one US dollar ($0.81). 46% and 6% of the products place sugar and salt, respectively, among the first five positions in their ingredient lists. Conclusions: Processed foods for infants and young children generally exceed the recommended sugar content, but due to their low cost and easy access, they are displacing traditional food consumption, contributing to increasing childhood obesity and chronic disease in the early stages of life. 展开更多
关键词 Fast FOODS SUGAR INFANT Children SODIUM
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The Effect of China’s Family Structure on Household Nutrition 预览
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作者 Yan Wang Thomas I. Wahl +1 位作者 James L. Seale J. Junfei Bai 《食品与营养科学(英文)》 2019年第2期198-206,共9页
China’s one-child policy has created entitled children or “little kings” who are spoiled by their parents and doting grandparents that want to provide the “best food” for their child to ensure the future of the f... China’s one-child policy has created entitled children or “little kings” who are spoiled by their parents and doting grandparents that want to provide the “best food” for their child to ensure the future of the family. In addition, seniors’ food preferences may influence the household’s diet. The extended family structure, typically including one child and seniors, will likely affect food expenditures, but does this provide the most nutritious or healthiest diet? Using household data collected from 11 Chinese cities, the results of this study suggest that the presence of a child or seniors, as well as higher income levels, and wife’s education level have significant effects on healthy household food consumption. 展开更多
关键词 Chinese FOOD CONSUMPTION Children SENIORS Health EATING HEALTHY
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Introduction to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Enlightenment for the Contemporary Domestic Children's Literature Creation 预览
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作者 陈黎 《海外英语》 2019年第1期178-179,共2页
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is the milestone in children literature.Compare with other countries,Chinese children's literature development has been blocked by the monotonous theme orientation and plots of... Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is the milestone in children literature.Compare with other countries,Chinese children's literature development has been blocked by the monotonous theme orientation and plots off the real life.In this paper,Alice has served as an illustrative case study to present some enlightenment to show creation should base on child-orientation and give detail opinions to help Chinese children's literary writers rethink the children's literature before and during the creation. 展开更多
关键词 Children's LITERARY ALICE in WONDERLAND ENLIGHTENMENT of Chinese children's literature
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Acute Pneumonia Characteristics in Children under Five Years of Age in Bamako, Mali 预览
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作者 Fatoumata Dicko-Traoré Abdoul Karim Doumbia +11 位作者 Mariam Sylla Mariatou Traoré Djènèba Konaté Fatoumata Léonie Diakité Karamoko Sacko Belco Maiga Hawa Diall Oumar Coulibaly Pierre Togo Fousseyni Traoré Abdoul Aziz Diakité Yacouba Toloba 《儿科学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期7-18,共12页
Pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in child under five years of age. The objective of the study was to assess socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of children under 5 hospitalized for pneumonia.... Pneumonia is the most common cause of mortality in child under five years of age. The objective of the study was to assess socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of children under 5 hospitalized for pneumonia. Material and method: We conducted a 6 months prospective study from June 1st, 2016 to December 31st, 2016 in the general pediatric service in the Pediatric Department of Gabriel Touré Teaching Hospital in Bamako, the capital city of Mali. Result: We have selected 63 cases of pneumonia according to our definition criteria, i.e. 2.2% of hospitalizations for children aged 1 to 59 months. The average age was 14 months. Infants under 2 years accounted for 82.53%. The sex ratio was 1.2. Seventy eight percent came from an unfavorable socio-economic background. The majority of mothers were uneducated (71.42%). Breastfeeding was exclusive up to 6 months in 50.79% of patients. Vaccination according to the national program was not up to date in 27% of patients. The average consultation time was 18 days. On admission, 81% of the patients had a fever, 93.64% had a tachypnea and 58.73% had crackling rales at pulmonary auscultation. Hypoxemia was present in 58.73%. Severe anemia was present in 79.36%. Radiologically, opacity was found in 42 patients (66.66%). The blood culture was positive in 8.3%. Beta-lactams were first-line prescribed in all patients. The case fatality rate was 9.52%. The factors associated with mortality were age less than 14 months (p = 0.08), adverse socio-economic conditions (p = 0.0003) and the presence of hypoxemia at the entrance (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Pneumonia remains major cause of morbidity and mortality in our context. Emphasis should be put on preventive measures. 展开更多
关键词 Acute PNEUMONIA CHILDREN MORTALITY MALI
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Parents Perceived Quality of Life for Children with Cochlear Implants 预览
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作者 Mursalin Molla Nurvin Jahan Asha Mohammad Kamrujjaman 《耳鼻喉(英文)》 2019年第1期13-24,共12页
The purpose of the study is to identify the important aspects of quality of life assessed in children with cochlear implant. Parental Perspective questionnaire with modified in Bangla was used as a data collection too... The purpose of the study is to identify the important aspects of quality of life assessed in children with cochlear implant. Parental Perspective questionnaire with modified in Bangla was used as a data collection tool in this study. Data was collected through face to face interview with 25 parents of children with Cochlear Implant (CI) attended at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka. Among 25 cochlear implant children, the boys (12) and girls (13) were nearly the same. Results indicated that the majority of the children had difficulties with communication with known people (48.00%) and before implantation children with CI obtained no benefit at all from hearing aids (76.00%). However, the research finding shows that they are largely satisfied with the outcomes from implantation. Improvement of social relationship, family well-being, within the family, educational condition, and self-reliance was satisfactorily reported by the parents. This study would help the clinician, speech pathologist, children and parents to raise awareness about the impact of CI and its treatment. 展开更多
关键词 QUALITY of LIFE CHILDREN COCHLEAR IMPLANT
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Pattern of Acute Asthma Seen in Children Emergency Department of the River State University Teaching Hospital Portharcourt Nigeria 预览
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作者 Uchenna C. Onubogu Edith Owate 《呼吸病期刊(英文)》 2019年第4期101-111,共11页
Acute exacerbations of asthma are one of the leading causes of emergency room visits and hospitalizations in children. Asthma exacerbations also demonstrate a seasonal pattern in which high rates can be seen at a part... Acute exacerbations of asthma are one of the leading causes of emergency room visits and hospitalizations in children. Asthma exacerbations also demonstrate a seasonal pattern in which high rates can be seen at a particular season and knowledge of the seasonal pattern of asthma exacerbation in any locality can improve asthma management. Objective: To determine the prevalence, management outcome and seasonal pattern of emergency department visits for acute exacerbation of asthma. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the emergency department register of all asthma admissions in the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Portharcourt, Nigeria over a five year period from January 2014 to December 2018. Results: A total of 205 (2.9%) asthma-related visits were recorded out of 7046 emergency room visits. The mean age of the patients was 6.1 (±4.2) yrs, with an M:F ratio of 1.97:1. The median length of hospital stay was 24 hrs. Children older than 11 yrs were more likely to be admitted for >48 hrs (OR 4.18, 95% CI;1.67, 10.39, P;0.003). Emergency department visits for asthma were more in the rainy season April-September 129 (63.9%) with a peak in May. There is a significant variation in the seasonal pattern of emergency room asthma admission with age (P = 0.018). Children >3 yrs have their highest admission rates in May while younger children experience two peaks in February and November. Conclusion: Asthma exacerbation is more in rainy season among children in Portharcourt although there is a variation in seasonal pattern of asthma exacerbation with age. 展开更多
关键词 ASTHMA EXACERBATION Emergency SEASONAL Variation CHILDREN NIGERIA AFRICA
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Trampoline Troubles: Serious Traumatic Injuries in Children from a Trampoline Park, a Case Series 预览
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作者 Jeremy Smith Brendan Williams Tricia B. Swan 《临床医学国际期刊(英文)》 2019年第9期452-461,共10页
Background: Trampoline use is one of the most common causes of recreational injury in children. In recent years, trampoline parks have grown in popularity and may be altering the spectrum of the trampoline-related inj... Background: Trampoline use is one of the most common causes of recreational injury in children. In recent years, trampoline parks have grown in popularity and may be altering the spectrum of the trampoline-related injuries that occur. These parks create increased opportunity for injuries that appear uniquely different from accident patterns seen with home trampoline use. Recent work has suggested this may result in injuries occurring in greater frequency and with increased severity that may result in a greater need of hospital admission and procedural management by subspecialty services. Case Series Presentation: This case series presents three such examples occurring after the opening of a trampoline park in our local community: 1) A displaced forearm fracture requiring closed reduction and orthopedic follow-up;2) An ankle fracture necessitating operative reduction and fixation;and 3) A facial injury with tooth avulsion prompting oral surgery consultation and endodontic follow-up. Conclusions: These cases demonstrate the complexity and severity of injury that can occur from trampoline park participation and should serve to increase awareness among health care providers of these risks to provide appropriate parental counseling and advocate for preventative measures. 展开更多
关键词 TRAMPOLINE Injury PEDIATRICS TRAMPOLINE Parks TRAUMA CHILDREN
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A Reliable Method to Quantify Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Plasma of Children by HPLC with Application in Pharmacokinetic Studies 预览
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作者 Alejandra Toledo Ló pez +10 位作者 Hugo Juá rez Olguí n Ismael Lares-Asseff Fernanda Reyes Gonzá lez Radames Alemon Medina Gabriela Pé rez Guillé Francisca Trujillo Jimenez 《美国分析化学(英文)》 2019年第7期247-253,共7页
Aim: To develop a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine plasmatic levels of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in paediatric population. Method: Chromatographic separation was carr... Aim: To develop a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method to determine plasmatic levels of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in paediatric population. Method: Chromatographic separation was carried out using a reverse phase column with detection ultraviolet at a wavelength of 225 nm. The mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer 0.1 M, acetonitrile and methanol, (65:20:15) with a flow of 1.0 ml/min. Results: Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range for trimethoprim of 0.25 to 5 μg/ml and 5 to 100 μg/ml for sulfamethoxazole. Precision were found to be within 15% for both compounds. The detection limits and quantifications for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 0.2 - 0.25 μg/ml and 3 - 5 μg/ml respectively. Conclusions: The developed method was applied for the quantification of both compounds in plasma samples of two patients resulting concentrations within the therapeutic ranges. The method is convenient for pharmacokinetic studies. 展开更多
关键词 CHILDREN Liquid Chromatography Phase REVERSE PHARMACOKINETICS
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基于幼儿模仿特点的幼儿武术教学实践探讨
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作者 韩晓志 陈惠琼 《中华武术(研究)》 2019年第3期35-37,共3页
模仿是幼儿获得技能知识的重要手段。通过模仿可以帮助幼儿学生形成武术动作的直观感受,将生硬的武术动作转换成简单易学又乐趣横生的情景模拟。激发幼儿学生参与武术教学的热情,寓教于乐。文章通过近年来对幼儿武术模拟教学实践的设计... 模仿是幼儿获得技能知识的重要手段。通过模仿可以帮助幼儿学生形成武术动作的直观感受,将生硬的武术动作转换成简单易学又乐趣横生的情景模拟。激发幼儿学生参与武术教学的热情,寓教于乐。文章通过近年来对幼儿武术模拟教学实践的设计和应用,对设计内容进行观察、测评、调整与分析,并就大班、中班、小班之间的模仿特点进行描述性评价,以此改善幼儿武术教学效果,以期为幼儿武术的科学化、合理化教学提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 幼儿 模仿特点 幼儿武术 武术教学
Ocular Changes in Egyptian Children on Regular Hemodialysis 预览
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作者 Somaya Mohamed Abd El-Ghany Manal Abd El-Salam +1 位作者 Mona Mohamed Farag Ola Ali El-Ashwah 《临床医学国际期刊(英文)》 2019年第6期353-362,共10页
Background: Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) may cause ocular disorders for many reasons such as uraemia, haemodialysis and hypertension. Aim: To study the ocular changes in a group of Egyptian children with chronic kidne... Background: Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) may cause ocular disorders for many reasons such as uraemia, haemodialysis and hypertension. Aim: To study the ocular changes in a group of Egyptian children with chronic kidney disease on regular hemodialysis. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 30 children on regular hemodialysis and another 30 age and sex-matched healthy children as controls. Their ages ranged from 4 to 17 years. Complete ophthalmological examination including;visual acuity and refraction, anterior segment examination, intraocular pressure (IOP), fundus examination and colored photography were assessed in the same line with routine laboratory investigations for children on regular hemodialysis and their controls. The relation of ocular disorders with related clinical and biochemical variables was measured statistically. Results: The most common eye abnormalities recorded were decreased visual acuity in Lt eye (73.3%) and Rt eye (60%), followed by corneal & conjunctiva calcification were (16.7%) and (13.3%) respectively and fundal changes (13.3%) of the study population. A significant positive relation was found between fundal changes particularly tortuous blood vessel abnormalities with the duration of hemodialysis and serum creatinine level. Conclusion: Ocular abnormalities are common than expected in children on regular hemodialysis. Visual acuity disorder is the major ocular abnormalities recorded in those patients. Regular ophthalmologic assessment is recommended in children to prevent longer-term visual complications. 展开更多
关键词 HEMODIALYSIS CHILDREN OCULAR CHANGES
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Diagnostic Value of the Thoracic Ultrasonography Compared to Conventional Chest X-Rays in Pneumonia for Children between 0 to 15 Years: Case Study in Two Hospitals in Yaoundé 预览
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作者 Seme Engoumou Ambroise Merci Mbede Maggy +3 位作者 Awana Armel Philippe Bilounga Ndengue Priscille Edith Onguene Julienne Zeh Odile Fernande 《放射学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期10-19,共10页
Introduction: The diagnosis of pneumonia is usually made based on clinical manifestations and chest X-ray. The use of ultrasound in detecting pulmonary diseases in general, and especially consolidation syndrome has be... Introduction: The diagnosis of pneumonia is usually made based on clinical manifestations and chest X-ray. The use of ultrasound in detecting pulmonary diseases in general, and especially consolidation syndrome has been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of thoracic ultrasound compared to chest X-ray in the diagnosis of infectious pneumonia in children. Methods: Children between 0 to 15 years were included in our study. The lung ultrasound results obtained were compared with those of the chest X-ray used as the reference. Our data were introduced into the EpiInfo 3.5.4 software and analyzed with the EpiInfo 3.5.4 and IBMSPSS Statistics version 20.0 softwares. Microsoft Office Excel 2016 was used to produce Charts. Continuous quantitative variables were presented. Cohen’s Kappa concordance test was applied with confidence interval of 95%. Results: 52 children were enrolled in the study. In imaging, the dominant sign was consolidation syndrome (75.0%) of cases by chest radiography, and in 78.8% of cases by lung ultrasound (p Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that lung echography is a non-ionizing and reliable tool in the diagnosis of childhood’s pneumonia. 展开更多
关键词 Lung Ultrasound CHEST X-Ray PNEUMONIA CHILDREN Yaoundé Cameroon
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从幼儿教育基本权检讨台湾地区的"幼儿教育及照顾法" 预览
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作者 许育典 王艺乔 《法学教育研究》 2019年第1期251-268,共18页
面临少子化趋势,同侪竞争激烈,使父母更加注重孩子的教育。而台湾地区面对此趋势转变,陆续推动学前教育优惠措施。本文基于观察台湾地区陆续推动包括扶持5岁弱势幼儿及早教育计划、免学费教育计划等政策,且现今许多地区已将5周岁幼儿纳... 面临少子化趋势,同侪竞争激烈,使父母更加注重孩子的教育。而台湾地区面对此趋势转变,陆续推动学前教育优惠措施。本文基于观察台湾地区陆续推动包括扶持5岁弱势幼儿及早教育计划、免学费教育计划等政策,且现今许多地区已将5周岁幼儿纳入义务教育范围,台湾地区亦有意将幼儿教育纳入国民教育,故借由台湾地区有关教育基本权在幼儿教育的实践,利用基本权保护法益的建构,规划出对于幼儿教育基本权在主观权利及客观法面向的保护法益。台湾地区于2011年6月通过"幼儿教育及照顾法",2012年开始实施。本文即先说明"幼儿教育及照顾法"的起源,再从幼儿教育基本权的相关保护法益,检讨现今台湾地区"幼儿教育及照顾法"的问题。 展开更多
关键词 幼儿教育基本权 幼儿教育及照顾法 幼儿教育政策
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Imaging Findings of Children Stroke in Burkina Faso and Etiological Approach 预览
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作者 Bénilde Marie Ange Tiemtore-Kambou Prosper Précieux Sagbohan +7 位作者 Dominique Bicaba Nina-Astrid Nde-Ouedraogo Zakari Nikiema Prosper David Lamien Adama Gnoumou Ousséï ni Diallo Rabiou Cisse 《放射学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期20-35,共16页
Introduction: Stroke is defined as a sudden onset focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin. Although it is essentially adult and elderly condition, stroke can occur in children. Their diagnosis essential... Introduction: Stroke is defined as a sudden onset focal neurological deficit of presumed vascular origin. Although it is essentially adult and elderly condition, stroke can occur in children. Their diagnosis essentially radiological is based on two main imaging modalities namely Computed Tomography (CT) and/or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Our study aimed to study radiological features of stroke in children with an etiologic approach in three health facilities of Ouagadougou. Material and Method: We conducted a retrospective study with descriptive focus during 11-year period from January 1st, 2006 to September 1st, 2017 among children aged between 02 months and 16 years who underwent brain CT scan and/or MRI;in whom diagnosis of stroke had been established in radiology department of Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital (CHU-YO), Schiphra Methodist Medical Center (CM Schipphra) and Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO). Results: 40 cases of pediatric stroke were collected including 23 at HOSCO, 15 at CHU-YO and 03 at CM Schipphra. Mean age was 6.45 years, with extremes of 2 months and 192 months. Unilateral contralateral motor weakness was the most common clinical presentation (32.5%) followed by seizures (17.5%). Ischemic stroke dominated in 82.5% of cases. Sino-venous thrombosis was rare and suspected in only one case. Sylvian artery was mostly affected in ischemic stroke for 56.25% of patients. The main etiologic factors found were hematologic (67.50%) then infectious factors (25%). Sickle cell disease was always incriminated in hematologic factor. Homozygous SS patients were the most numerous (82%). Conclusion: Stroke diagnosis in children is based on etiologic investigation, biology with a major role of medical imaging. Sickle cell disease accounts a lot in occurrence of stroke in children in our context. 展开更多
关键词 STROKE CHILDREN BRAIN CT/MRI OUAGADOUGOU Burkina Faso
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Japanese Version of the Parent Health Locus of Control Scales: Validity and Reliability 预览
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作者 Akiko Yamada Akemi Yamazaki 《护理学期刊(英文)》 2019年第9期972-987,共16页
The Parent Health Locus of Control (PHLOC) Scales measure parents’ beliefs about the factors that affect their children’s health. The aim of our study was to develop a Japanese version of the Parent Health Locus of ... The Parent Health Locus of Control (PHLOC) Scales measure parents’ beliefs about the factors that affect their children’s health. The aim of our study was to develop a Japanese version of the Parent Health Locus of Control (JPHLOC) Scales and to verify its validity and reliability. The JPHLOC scales consist of six scales: Professional Influence, Parental Influence, Child Influence, Media Influence, Fate Influence, and God, Buddha, and the Spirits Influence. Our questionnaire was administered to 231 principal caregivers from Japan whose children were under 6 years of age. The items, related to the “God, Buddha, and the Spirits Influence” scale, showed a floor effect. The exploratory factor analysis indicated that JPHLOC’ six factors functioned similarly to the PHLOC’ factors. The Fate Influence and Child Influence factor structures in JPHLOC scales were different from the corresponding factor structures in the original PHLOC scales in the functioning of only one item. There were statistically significant correlations between JPHLOC scales and Japanese version of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), which add evidence to the criterion-related validity of JPHLOC scales. Furthermore, applying the known-groups method, our study showed that there was a significant difference across the JPHLOC scale scores, owning to differences in the children’s and caregivers’ demographics, which provides an evidence for construct validity. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the six scales were estimated between 0.73 and 0.93. In a test-retest study, the interclass correlation coefficients for the six scales were ranged between 0.80 and 0.90. The results suggested that the JPHLOC scales have sufficient reliability and validity. The JPHLOC scales are applicable to the caregivers of healthy children. We confirm that the PHLOC scales are also applicable to Japanese caregivers. 展开更多
关键词 Children HEALTH-RELATED LOCUS of Control CAREGIVERS NURSING Scale Development
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主体性维护:“好孩子”的“坏行为”分析 预览
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作者 王玉婷 张更立 《陕西学前师范学院学报》 2019年第11期1-6,共6页
主体性维护是个体体验真实生存,保障精神健康的必要手段。在现实生活中,“好孩子”常表现出一些坏的行为。笔者通过呈现案例并对其进行现象学解读,认为这种“好孩子”的“坏行为”,实际上是当他们受到来自外在压力的威胁而感到焦虑不安... 主体性维护是个体体验真实生存,保障精神健康的必要手段。在现实生活中,“好孩子”常表现出一些坏的行为。笔者通过呈现案例并对其进行现象学解读,认为这种“好孩子”的“坏行为”,实际上是当他们受到来自外在压力的威胁而感到焦虑不安时,常采用的维护其主体性的行为方式。因此,从教育者的角度来看,面对“好孩子”的“坏行为”,首要的不是禁止“坏行为”本身,而是理解儿童的需要缺失和“坏行为”的产生机制,为其解决成长中的问题提供帮助。为此,教育者应转换视角,密切关注儿童的主体性维护,学会理解与关心,并减少“好孩子”的角色预设,以端正的教育心态将之引领到主体性维护的正轨上来。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 主体性维护 好孩子 坏行为
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Confectionery and Child Consumers: Situation and Solution Proposals 预览
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作者 Iraz Haspolat Kaya 《食品与营养科学(英文)》 2019年第8期893-899,共7页
The group of child consumers differs significantly from other consumer groups due to the effects of individuals other than themselves on their preferences as well as motivation factors of consumers’ food choices. In ... The group of child consumers differs significantly from other consumer groups due to the effects of individuals other than themselves on their preferences as well as motivation factors of consumers’ food choices. In recent years, the effect of the relationship between nutrition and health on food preferences has increased. The effects of this relationship on protectionist consumer approaches towards children are more visible. It can be stated that communication channels, especially social media, increase the level of this effect. Foods, which are frequently preferred by child consumers due to their taste and pleasure but contain high calorie value and high sugar levels associated with obesity;are among the foods that are frequently discussed. This situation increases the concern of parents about these foods. In this study, consumption characteristics of sugar and confectionery products and potential alternatives to these products are discussed with the aim of due diligence and seeking solutions. It is important to carry out awareness-raising activities on sugar and sugar products not only for children but also for all socio-economic and age groups, and to develop policies and strategies for this purpose. Computer game-based consumer awareness studies can be used for sugar and confectionery products and for a lively lifestyle in order to provide fast and direct awareness to children. However, first, it is recommended to elaborate due diligence in order to determine the quality and quantity of information and awareness, to identify possible solution proposals with the participation of all stakeholders and to conduct pilot practices based on recommendations. It may be more beneficial to carry out these activities for a specific product and consumer groups rather than the general nutrition and consumer group. 展开更多
关键词 Children NUTRITION SUGAR CONSUMER Food PREFERENCE CONSUMER Group
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Child Oncology and Hospital Recreation 预览
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作者 Concei??o de Maria Lima Nascimento Erenice Concei??o de Almeida Barbosa +4 位作者 Brunna Rafaella Do Carmo Silva Karoline Queiroz Martins Almeida de Araújo Gilzandra Lira Dantas Florencio Ana Carla Gomes Canário Paulo Francisco de Almeida Neto 《癌症治疗(英文)》 2019年第2期157-165,共9页
Introduction: Hospital Recreation (HR) aims to reduce disasters caused by hospital admission. Objectives: To expose the behavior of children in cancer treatment (CA) during HR, and to verify which recreational activit... Introduction: Hospital Recreation (HR) aims to reduce disasters caused by hospital admission. Objectives: To expose the behavior of children in cancer treatment (CA) during HR, and to verify which recreational activities generate the most adherence. Methods: The research is an experimental clinical trial of a non-probabilistic and intentional sample, with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Participants were 43 children (both sexes), with CA, admitted to the Pediatric Hospital Oncology Center—PHOC. The mean age of the children in fact was 7.5 years, and the data of mean and standard deviation between parenthood confer with the data of the results found during the research. The study lasted 12 weeks, with 38 sessions lasting 3 hours. Using games of activity: cognitive, manipulative, perceptive, creative and cooperative. Inclusion criteria: 1) being hospitalized in the PHOC, of the city of Natal;2) being released by the medical team to participate in the activities. Children who were on special care in the ICU were excluded from the study. The behavior of the children was evaluated by the observation matrix proposed by Urie Bonfenbrenner, approached by Krebs and Koller. At the end of the research, an interview was made with patients about the HR experience. Results: In the subjects the molecular behavior showed relevance of ~50%, and the cooperative of ~80% in relation to HR, and the cognitive activities showed an adhesion index of ~90%. Conclusion: The participants showed greater adherence in the cognitive activities, and the predominance of the molecular behavior in relation to hospital recreation, highlighting the cooperative behavior among the individuals. In this way, the activities of HR can complement conventional medical treatment. 展开更多
关键词 Ludic ACTIVITY HOSPITAL CHILDREN RECREATION Playful Cancer
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从自然到德性:教育引导与儿童生命空间的开启
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作者 刘莉 《教育发展研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期33-40,共8页
儿童教育以顺应天性、节制私欲为基础,以和谐身心关系的建立来健全儿童的自然生命;以自爱和同情为动力,以有爱的交往与历史的学习来拓展儿童的社会生命;以模仿和追求为方式,以经典故事中德性之美好来丰盈儿童的精神生命,由此帮助儿童在... 儿童教育以顺应天性、节制私欲为基础,以和谐身心关系的建立来健全儿童的自然生命;以自爱和同情为动力,以有爱的交往与历史的学习来拓展儿童的社会生命;以模仿和追求为方式,以经典故事中德性之美好来丰盈儿童的精神生命,由此帮助儿童在与周遭事物的相遇中逐渐完成从自然人到德性人的过渡,进而走向追寻自我生命的整全。 展开更多
关键词 教育 儿童 儿童生命空间
Socio-Demographic, Biopsychosocial and Lifestyle Behaviors Related with Eating Disorders of Children and Adolescents of Costa Rica 预览
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作者 Nú?ez-Rivas Hilda Patricia Holst-Schumacher Ileana Campos-Saborío Natalia 《食品与营养科学(英文)》 2019年第8期1021-1033,共13页
The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of sociodemographic, biopsychosocial and lifestyle behaviors (diet, sedentarism and physical activity) with eating disorders (ED) in a national sample of Cost... The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of sociodemographic, biopsychosocial and lifestyle behaviors (diet, sedentarism and physical activity) with eating disorders (ED) in a national sample of Costa Rican children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A total of 2667 students of elementary, middle and high school from sixty-four educative centers (40 schools and 24 high schools) of Costa Rica participated in the study. The predictive factors associated with ED are: body image dissatisfaction (β = 0.367;p β = 0.131;p β = 0.109;p 0.001), intentionally hurt or harm itself (β = 0.074;p β = 0.053;p β = 0.052;p β = 0.051;p β = -0.071;p β = -0.068;p = 0.010) and the age (β = -0.064;p = 0.001) are not related with the development of ED. Psychosocial factors (body image dissatisfaction and intentionally self-injure) had the greatest influence (near 27%) of the global variance of the regression model that explained the association with ED. Programs should be promoted to monitor children and adolescents with excess weight, as well as, the coexistence of erroneous weight and body image perceptions in these population. This could protect against the development of ED in children and adolescents. Evidence-Based Medicine: Level V of evidence (descriptive study). 展开更多
关键词 EATING DISORDERS BEHAVIORS Children Adolescents Costa Rica
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