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Pathological significance of tRNA-derived small RNAs in neurological disorders 预览
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作者 Chuan Qin Pei-Pei Xu +7 位作者 Xin Zhang Chao Zhang Chang-Bin Liu De-Gang Yang Feng Gao Ming-Liang Yang Liang-Jie Du Jian-Jun Li 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期212-221,共10页
Non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs) are a type of RNA that is not translated into proteins. Transfer RNAs(tRNAs), a type of ncRNA, are the second most abundant type of RNA in cells. Recent studies have shown that tRNAs can be cle... Non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs) are a type of RNA that is not translated into proteins. Transfer RNAs(tRNAs), a type of ncRNA, are the second most abundant type of RNA in cells. Recent studies have shown that tRNAs can be cleaved into a heterogeneous population of ncRNAs with lengths of 18–40 nucleotides, known as tRNA-derived small RNAs(tsRNAs). There are two main types of tsRNA, based on their length and the number of cleavage sites that they contain: tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs. These RNA species were first considered to be byproducts of tRNA random cleavage. However, mounting evidence has demonstrated their critical functional roles as regulatory factors in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases, including neurological diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms by which tsRNAs affect specific cellular processes are largely unknown. Therefore, this study comprehensively summarizes the following points:(1) The biogenetics of tsRNA, including their discovery, classification, formation, and the roles of key enzymes.(2) The main biological functions of tsRNA, including its miRNA-like roles in gene expression regulation, protein translation regulation, regulation of various cellular activities, immune mediation, and response to stress.(3) The potential mechanisms of pathophysiological changes in neurological diseases that are regulated by tsRNA, including neurodegeneration and neurotrauma.(4) The identification of the functional diversity of tsRNA may provide valuable information regarding the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders, thus providing a new reference for the clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Research into tsRNAs in neurological diseases also has the following challenges: potential function and mechanism studies, how to accurately quantify expression, and the exact relationship between tsRNA and miRNA. These challenges require future research efforts. 展开更多
关键词 EPIGENETICS molecular biology NEUROLOGICAL disorders review sequencing STRESS tRNA tRNA-derived FRAGMENTS tRNA-derived small RNAs tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA
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生物学双语教学实践与思考 预览
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作者 冯平 《教育教学论坛》 2020年第3期276-277,共2页
双语教学是学生识别和记忆专业词汇、提高英文科技文献阅读能力的有效手段。生物学双语教学实践过程中遇到“学生接受速度慢”“文科学生对理科知识理解难度大”“课程考核方式如何选择”等问题,为此,在教学过程中采取将课件调整成由含... 双语教学是学生识别和记忆专业词汇、提高英文科技文献阅读能力的有效手段。生物学双语教学实践过程中遇到“学生接受速度慢”“文科学生对理科知识理解难度大”“课程考核方式如何选择”等问题,为此,在教学过程中采取将课件调整成由含有大量中文到全英文逐渐过渡的形式,并且考核方式也选择开卷考试以降低难度,此外通过评学和评教、加强师生对课程学习效果的交流等手段来不断提升双语教学的质量和教学效果。 展开更多
关键词 双语教学 教学模式 考核方式 生物学
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新形势下高中毕业生生物学科的社会责任现状研究——以广州为例 预览
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作者 关钡琪 曾小龙 胡位荣 《教育教学论坛》 2020年第5期111-112,共2页
社会责任是生物学核心素养之一。文章基于社会责任的四个维度自编了问卷,结果发现除了维度一,在其他三个维度上,学生的社会责任感有待提高,尤其是维度四还相当欠缺;男生普遍比女生的社会责任感强;独生子女与非独生子女在维度三上责任感... 社会责任是生物学核心素养之一。文章基于社会责任的四个维度自编了问卷,结果发现除了维度一,在其他三个维度上,学生的社会责任感有待提高,尤其是维度四还相当欠缺;男生普遍比女生的社会责任感强;独生子女与非独生子女在维度三上责任感相当,而其他维度上,独生子女较强;曾经当过班干部的学生普遍有较强的社会责任感。 展开更多
关键词 生物学科 社会责任 高中毕业生 问卷调查
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生物类本科专业有机化学课程教学改革与实践 预览
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作者 刘贤响 杨源 +1 位作者 喻宁亚 徐满才 《广东化工》 CAS 2020年第1期129-129,128,共2页
有机化学是生物类本科专业的一门重要基础课,从优化教学内容、重视直观教学、激发学生学习兴趣、突破重点难点、实现课程育人等角度出发,提出应结合生物专业特色,促进学科交叉融合,探究生物专业有机化学教学改革的方法,为培养具备综合... 有机化学是生物类本科专业的一门重要基础课,从优化教学内容、重视直观教学、激发学生学习兴趣、突破重点难点、实现课程育人等角度出发,提出应结合生物专业特色,促进学科交叉融合,探究生物专业有机化学教学改革的方法,为培养具备综合创新能力的跨学科人才奠定基础。 展开更多
关键词 生物专业 有机化学 课程教学 教学改革
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Retrospective cohort study of statin therapy effect on resected colorectal liver metastases 预览
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作者 Edward Alabraba Hussain Ibrahim +3 位作者 Adina Olaru Iain Cameron Dhanny Gomez Nottingham HPB Surgery Group 《世界胃肠外科杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2020年第2期34-44,共11页
BACKGROUND Above and beyond their role in cardiovascular risk reduction,statins appear to have a chemopreventive role in some gastro-intestinal cancers.In the quest for new chemopreventive agents,some existing establi... BACKGROUND Above and beyond their role in cardiovascular risk reduction,statins appear to have a chemopreventive role in some gastro-intestinal cancers.In the quest for new chemopreventive agents,some existing established drugs such as statins have shown potential for re-purposing as chemoprevention.Probing existing drugs,whose pharmacodynamics are familiar,for novel beneficial effects offers a more cost-effective and less time-consuming strategy than establishing brand new drugs whose pharmacodynamic profile is unfamiliar.Observational studies show statins decrease the risk of developing colorectal cancer but there are no published studies exploring the potential impact of statins on carcinogenesis in colorectal liver metastases(CRLM).AIM To evaluate impact of statins on outcomes of CRLM resection,and secondarily to assess if statins influence CRLM histo-pathology.METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients operated for CRLM over a 13-year period from 2005 to 2017.Patients were identified from a prospective database maintained in our Tertiary care hospital.All 586 patients included the study had undergone resection of CRLM following discussion at multidisclipinary team meeting,some patients requiring neoadjuvant chemotherapy to downstage CRLM prior to surgery.We analysed patient demographics,operative details,CRLM histopathology,Index of Deprivation,neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio,platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and chemotherapy use in relation to clinical outcome.Statistics were performed using SPSS version 16.0;significance taken at 5%.RESULTS Liver resection for CRLM was undertaken in 586 patients at a median age of 68(range 19 to 88)years.Statin therapy was used by 181 patients.Median follow-up time was 23(range 12-96)mo and further colorectal cancer metastases developed in 267 patients.A total of 131 patients died.Multi-variate analysis identified 6 independent predictors of poorer disease-free survival:Synchronous presentation,multiple tumours,tumour size≥5 cm,moderate-severe steatosis,peri 展开更多
关键词 Colorectal liver metastases STATIN Liver resection CHEMOPREVENTION Tumour biology SURVIVAL
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水利水电工程建设对生态环境的影响 预览
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作者 江家宝 《中国资源综合利用》 2020年第1期144-146,共3页
水利水电工程是我国基础设施建设过程中的一项关键内容,其对于防洪排涝、发电、灌溉等多个方面都会产生积极影响,这也使我国出现了大量的水利工程。水利水电工程建设会对生态环境造成一定破坏,为了减小其对生态环境的不良影响,人们应当... 水利水电工程是我国基础设施建设过程中的一项关键内容,其对于防洪排涝、发电、灌溉等多个方面都会产生积极影响,这也使我国出现了大量的水利工程。水利水电工程建设会对生态环境造成一定破坏,为了减小其对生态环境的不良影响,人们应当在详细分析的基础上提出相应的保护措施,以便充分发挥水利水电工程的积极作用。 展开更多
关键词 水利水电工程 生态环境 水环境 生物
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通过植物细胞工程实验教学提高大学生科研素养 预览
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作者 黄红梅 刘清波 张学文 《教育教学论坛》 2020年第2期387-388,共2页
实验教学是高校教学体系的重要组成部分,提高大学生科研素养是高校人才培养的重要目标。文章从植物细胞工程实验技术的教学实践出发,总结了以实验教学提高大学生科研素养的举措,为高校人才培养提供参考。
关键词 实验 科研 大学生 生物
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Regulation by competition:a hidden layer of gene regulatory network
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作者 Lei Wei Ye Yuan +6 位作者 Tao Hu Shuailin Li Tianrun Cheng Jinzhi Lei Zhen Xie Michael Q.Zhang Xiaowo Wang 《中国电气与电子工程前沿:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第2期110-121,共12页
Background:Molecular competition brings about trade-offs of shared limited resources among the cellular components,and thus introduces a hidden layer of regulatory mechanism by connecting components even without direc... Background:Molecular competition brings about trade-offs of shared limited resources among the cellular components,and thus introduces a hidden layer of regulatory mechanism by connecting components even without direct physical interactions.Several molecular competition scenarios have been observed recently,but there is still a lack of systematic quantitative understanding to reveal the essence of molecular competition.Methods:Here,by abstracting the analogous competition mechanism behind diverse molecular systems,we built a unified coarse-grained competition motif model to systematically integrate experimental evidences in these processes and analyzed general properties shared behind them from steady-state behavior to dynamic responses.Results:We could predict in what molecular environments competition would reveal threshold behavior or display a negative linear dependence.We quantified how competition can shape regulator-target dose-response curve,modulate dynamic response speed,control target expression noise,and introduce correlated fluctuations between targets.Conclusions:This work uncovered the complexity and generality of molecular competition effect as a hidden layer of gene regulatory network,and therefore provided a unified insight and a theoretical framework to understand and employ competition in both natural and synthetic systems. 展开更多
关键词 systems BIOLOGY COMPUTATIONAL modeling molecular COMPETITION REGULATION SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY network MOTIF
Neural plasticity and adult neurogenesis:the deep biology perspective 预览
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作者 Anna Maria Colangelo Giovanni Cirillo +2 位作者 Lilia Alberghina Michele Papa Hans V.Westerhoff 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期201-205,共5页
The recognition that neurogenesis does not stop with adolescence has spun off research towards the reduction of brain disorders by enhancing brain regeneration. Adult neurogenesis is one of the tougher problems of dev... The recognition that neurogenesis does not stop with adolescence has spun off research towards the reduction of brain disorders by enhancing brain regeneration. Adult neurogenesis is one of the tougher problems of developmental biology as it requires the generation of complex intracellular and pericellular anatomies, amidst the danger of neuroinflammation. We here review how a multitude of regulatory pathways optimized for early neurogenesis has to be revamped into a new choreography of time dependencies. Distinct pathways need to be regulated, ranging from neural growth factor induced differentiation to mitochondrial bioenergetics, reactive oxygen metabolism, and apoptosis. Requiring much Gibbs energy consumption, brain depends on aerobic energy metabolism, hence on mitochondrial activity. Mitochondrial fission and fusion, movement and perhaps even mitoptosis, thereby come into play. All these network processes are interlinked and involve a plethora of molecules. We recommend a deep thinking approach to adult neurobiology. 展开更多
关键词 NEUROGENESIS adult brain NEUROREGENERATION NEURON differentiation nerve growth factor energyhomeostasis MITOCHONDRIA DEEP BIOLOGY systems BIOLOGY
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探寻高中生物新教材插图开发的策略 预览
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作者 连丽丽 《当代教研论丛》 2019年第3期90-90,103共2页
教材插图在高中生物教材中的应用已十分常见,但是如何插图和插怎样的图能够更好地体现教材的教学作用,使图片真正成为学生学习生物知识的辅助工具,却没有明确的理论研究可资参考。因而文章针对人教版高中生物新教材开发过程中插图开发... 教材插图在高中生物教材中的应用已十分常见,但是如何插图和插怎样的图能够更好地体现教材的教学作用,使图片真正成为学生学习生物知识的辅助工具,却没有明确的理论研究可资参考。因而文章针对人教版高中生物新教材开发过程中插图开发的有效性进行针对性的研究,旨在明确插图应用的方法,更好地服务于高中生物教学的发展。 展开更多
关键词 高中 生物 教学 插图开发
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DNA computing for combinational logic
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作者 Chuan ZHANG Lulu GE +4 位作者 Yuchen ZHUANG Ziyuan SHEN Zhiwei ZHONG Zaichen ZHANG &Xiaohu YOU 《中国科学:信息科学(英文版)》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第6期5-20,共16页
With the progressive scale-down of semiconductor’s feature size, people are looking forward to More Moore and More than Moore. In order to o?er a possible alternative implementation process,researchers are trying to ... With the progressive scale-down of semiconductor’s feature size, people are looking forward to More Moore and More than Moore. In order to o?er a possible alternative implementation process,researchers are trying to figure out a feasible transfer from silicon to molecular computing. Such transfer lies on bio-based modules programming with computer-like logic, aiming at realizing the Turing machine.To accomplish this, the DNA-based combinational logic is inevitably the first step we have taken care of.This timely overview study introduces combinational logic synthesized in DNA computing from both analog and digital perspectives separately. State-of-the-art research progress is summarized for interested readers to quick understand DNA computing, initiate discussion on existing techniques and inspire innovation solutions.We hope this study can pave the way for the future DNA computing synthesis. 展开更多
关键词 synthetic BIOLOGY DNA computing DNA STRAND DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS chemical reaction networks combinational logic
Engineering the Biosynthesis of Caffeic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Heterologous Enzyme Combinations 预览
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作者 Lanqing Liu Hong Liu +4 位作者 Wei Zhang Mingdong Yao Bingzhi Li Duo Liu Yingjin Yuan 《工程(英文)》 2019年第2期287-295,共9页
Engineering the biosynthesis of plant-derived natural products in microbes presents several challenges, especially when the expression and activation of the plant cytochrome P450 enzyme is required. By recruiting two ... Engineering the biosynthesis of plant-derived natural products in microbes presents several challenges, especially when the expression and activation of the plant cytochrome P450 enzyme is required. By recruiting two enzymes—HpaB and HpaC—from several bacteria, we constructed functional 4- hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HPA3H) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to take on a role similar to that of the plant-derived cytochrome P450 enzyme and produce caffeic acid. Along with a common tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), the different combinations of HpaB and HpaC presented varied capabilities in producing the target product, caffeic acid, from the substrate, L-tyrosine. The highest production of caffeic acid was obtained with the enzyme combination of HpaB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and HpaC from Salmonella enterica, which yielded up to (289.4 ± 4.6) mg-L1 in shake-flask cultivation. The compatibility of heterologous enzymes within a yeast chassis was effectively improved, as the caffeic acid production was increased by 40 times from the initial yield. Six key amino acid residues around the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain in HpaB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were differentiate from those other HpaBs, and might play critical roles in affecting enzyme activity. We have thus established an effective approach to construct a highly efficient yeast system to synthesize non-native hydroxylated phenylpropanoids. 展开更多
关键词 SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE Caffeic acid HETEROLOGOUS enzyme CYTOCHROME P450 Synthetic biology
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智能手机在高校生物学教学中的应用 预览 被引量:1
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作者 柳莹 高丽 冯俊荣 《生物学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期120-122,共3页
目前,大学生已成为智能手机使用频率最高、时间最长的群体之一,智能手机对高校课堂教学的负面影响也受到了广泛关注。然而,借助海量的网络资源,智能手机也可以成为教师课堂教学的有力助手,在学生的自主学习中发挥重要的引导作用,有效地... 目前,大学生已成为智能手机使用频率最高、时间最长的群体之一,智能手机对高校课堂教学的负面影响也受到了广泛关注。然而,借助海量的网络资源,智能手机也可以成为教师课堂教学的有力助手,在学生的自主学习中发挥重要的引导作用,有效地提高课程的教学效果。从用智能手机在搭建网络学习平台、辅助课堂教学、进行随堂测试等方面的应用进行分析,总结智能手机在高校生物学教学中的应用模式及主要优势,以期为广大高校生物学教师提供相应的教学参考。 展开更多
关键词 智能手机 生物学 网络学习平台
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Biological Characteristics of Lepus timibus in Captivity 预览
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作者 Liu Hao Tu Shuqing 《动物与饲料科学:英文版》 CAS 2019年第2期80-83,共4页
The biological characteristics of Lepus timibus in captivity, such as living habit, feeding habit, nutrition composition of main food, growth and development, molting rule, were studied systematically. The results sho... The biological characteristics of Lepus timibus in captivity, such as living habit, feeding habit, nutrition composition of main food, growth and development, molting rule, were studied systematically. The results showed that there were more than 30 kinds of common plants favored by L.timibus. The linear regression equation of weight gain was y=-23.223+30.929 x. The molting sequence in spring successively was head, dorsum, ear,both sides of the chest, abdomen, limbs, tails. 展开更多
关键词 LEPUS timibus BIOLOGY FEEDING HABIT
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蚜虫虫生真菌种类、生物学特性及流行学研究进展 预览
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作者 李磊 龙友华 +2 位作者 杨森 张竹竹 尹显慧 《山地农业生物学报》 2019年第2期61-70,共10页
蚜虫虫生真菌是一类重要的昆虫病原真菌,在农林害虫生物防治上具有广阔的应用前景。本文综述了蚜虫虫生真菌种类与地理分布,对其生物学特征、致病机理和侵染循环、田间流行影响因素进行了阐述,探讨了蚜虫虫生真菌应用中存在的问题,为开... 蚜虫虫生真菌是一类重要的昆虫病原真菌,在农林害虫生物防治上具有广阔的应用前景。本文综述了蚜虫虫生真菌种类与地理分布,对其生物学特征、致病机理和侵染循环、田间流行影响因素进行了阐述,探讨了蚜虫虫生真菌应用中存在的问题,为开发出具生防能力的虫生真菌提供理论参考。 展开更多
关键词 蚜虫 虫生真菌 种类 生物学 流行学
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生物学综合实验课程体系设计及实施——以北京师范大学“基础学科拔尖学生培养试验计划”为例 预览
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作者 宋宏涛 李万杰 +2 位作者 向本琼 朱壁如 冯利民 《实验室研究与探索》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期175-178,223共5页
在拔尖人才和精英教育培养的思想指导下,北京师范大学生命科学学院遵循因材施教的培养理念,通过整合现有实验课程资源,在实验内容上进行大胆改革创新,构建了一套完整的包含经典的宏观生物学实验技能训练模块、基础实验技能训练模块、综... 在拔尖人才和精英教育培养的思想指导下,北京师范大学生命科学学院遵循因材施教的培养理念,通过整合现有实验课程资源,在实验内容上进行大胆改革创新,构建了一套完整的包含经典的宏观生物学实验技能训练模块、基础实验技能训练模块、综合实验能力培养模块和探究及解决问题能力模块的生物学综合实验课程体系。从课程体系的培养目标、课程体系的设计、课程实施概况及问卷调查反馈评价、不足与展望4方面对该实验课程方案进行总结和探讨。经过5年的实践检验,表明该课程体系对于拔尖学生在生物学实验创新能力培养方面效果明显,具有一定的示范作用。 展开更多
关键词 拔尖计划 生物学 综合实验课程体系 教学改革
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昌黎生态监控区近五年潮间带生物多样性研究
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作者 常欣悦 丁健 +2 位作者 赵志红 韩志杰 高伟明 《海洋湖沼通报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期98-107,共10页
为研究昌黎生态监控区典型生态系统2013-2017年夏季潮间带生物的多样性,基于调查区两个航次5个断面的潮间带生物监测数据,对多样性指数、密度、均匀度、优势度等进行评价分析。结果表明:2013- 2017年夏季共鉴定潮间带生物28种,各年份依... 为研究昌黎生态监控区典型生态系统2013-2017年夏季潮间带生物的多样性,基于调查区两个航次5个断面的潮间带生物监测数据,对多样性指数、密度、均匀度、优势度等进行评价分析。结果表明:2013- 2017年夏季共鉴定潮间带生物28种,各年份依次分别为2种、11种、4种、5种、6种。5年潮间带生物总的生物密度分别为8个/m^2、45个/m^2、328个/m^2、23个/m^2和124个/m^2 ,由此种类组成和生物密度变化趋势均波动很大。2013- 2017 年多样性指数(H')分别为0. 81、2. 73、2. 95、1. 56、1.81;均匀度指数(J)分别为0.81、0. 79、0. 82、0.67、0.70;丰富度指数(d)分别为0. 33、1.82、1.73.0. 59、1. 01,2015年三项指标明显分别是最高年份。以优势度指数Y>0.04确定潮间带优势种类,优势种共15种。 展开更多
关键词 潮间带 生物 群落多样性 昌黎 生态监控区
生物学研究生专业英语教学研究 预览 被引量:1
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作者 赵懿琛 《教育教学论坛》 2019年第1期94-95,共2页
在国际化交流日益增多的今日,英语在国际间的学术交流中起到了重要的作用。正因如此,对于生物学专业的研究生而言,专业英语是一项非常重要的课程。本文通过对生物学研究生进行专业英语教学中所获得的经验,对专业英语的教学方法进行研究... 在国际化交流日益增多的今日,英语在国际间的学术交流中起到了重要的作用。正因如此,对于生物学专业的研究生而言,专业英语是一项非常重要的课程。本文通过对生物学研究生进行专业英语教学中所获得的经验,对专业英语的教学方法进行研究和探讨,以期通过词汇、听、说、读、写这五个方面的教学帮助生物学专业的研究生提高专业英语能力。 展开更多
关键词 生物学 专业英语 教学
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生态文明建设背景下长江经济带生态建设格局演变分析 预览
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作者 王维 陈伟 《河北师范大学学报:自然科学版》 CAS 2019年第6期526-535,共10页
以2005-2015年长江经济带11省市为研究对象,运用综合评价法对生态建设水平的时空变化进行分析,通过探索性空间数据分析和冷热点分析工具探索生态建设水平的时空集聚特征和时空演变情况.结果表明:2005-2015年长江经济带水生态指数、土壤... 以2005-2015年长江经济带11省市为研究对象,运用综合评价法对生态建设水平的时空变化进行分析,通过探索性空间数据分析和冷热点分析工具探索生态建设水平的时空集聚特征和时空演变情况.结果表明:2005-2015年长江经济带水生态指数、土壤生态指数、大气生态指数与生物生态指数持续上升,生态建设指数呈现出明显的空间自相关特性,靠近上游地区的中游省市向低高集聚区转变,邻近下游地区的中游省市向高低集聚区转变.2005-2015年长江经济带生态建设指数热点区域集中在中上游地区,逐渐由上游地区向中游地区扩大;冷点区域集中于中下游地区,逐渐由中游地区向下游地区缩小. 展开更多
关键词 生态 土壤 大气 生物 时空格局 影响因素
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初中生物学教学生活化--以人教版初中生物学七年级上册为例 预览
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作者 杜俊宏 韩宁 王重力 《科教导刊》 2019年第10期134-135,共2页
本文旨在探讨初中生物学教学生活化相关问题,主要结合人教版初中生物学七年级上册教科书及教学实践经验,通过研究生物教学生活化的必要性以及生活化教学存在的问题,对生活化教学提出相关建议,以此来使中学生物课堂更加生动。
关键词 生物学 教学生活化 情景教学
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