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The Abuse of Dermal Fillers: A Clinico-Epidemiological Study of 35 Cases 预览
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作者 Nabeel K. Al Hamzawi Salih M. Al Baaj 《化妆品、皮肤病及应用期刊(英文)》 2019年第2期94-106,共13页
Background: Nowadays, the use of dermal fillers for correcting signs of aging, such as wrinkles, depressions, and folds, has become increasingly popular. However, the abuse of these products can lead to disfigurements... Background: Nowadays, the use of dermal fillers for correcting signs of aging, such as wrinkles, depressions, and folds, has become increasingly popular. However, the abuse of these products can lead to disfigurements and unpredictable consequences among users. Objective: To evaluate the clinical abnormalities related to dermal fillers abuse in Iraqi people, and identify the various factors contributing to them. Methods: A total of 35 patients with different facial abnormalities due to the abuse of dermal fillers, attending our clinic in Diwaniyah, Iraq, from September 2016 to December 2017, were enrolled. A questionnaire-based analysis was used to collect clinical and sociodemographic data from patients to determine the etiological profile behind this problem. Several disfigurements and facial defects were diagnosed on clinical base. We have treated most of the situations that require intervention and treatment. Results: A total of 35 patients aged between 25 and 54 years with a sex ratio of 0.093 were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 42 years, and the age group between 35 and 45 years was forming 85.7% of the cases. The clinical abnormalities recorded in this study include: buffy face 8 (22.8%), facial asymmetry 3 (8.5%), Mdoka fish lips like 6 (17%), periorbital redness 1 (2.8%), filler fatigue 6 (17%), bags under eyes 4 (11.4%), sizeable bulbous nose 4 (11.4%), topographical changes 2 (5.7%), and stone-like cheeks 1 (2.8%). The leading causes for the abuse of fillers were as follows: 12 (34.28%) candidates were not compatible with the procedure, 9 (25.7%) were non-compliance with the indications of the Food and Drug Organization (FDA), 9 (25.7%) fillers were injected in the wrong place, 18 (51.4%) injections were of a larger quantity than required, and 5 (14.2%) had frequent and long-term injection. Conclusion: The use of dermal fillers for a wrong purpose can result in disfigurements rather than beautification. The commonest disfigurements are the puffy face, enlarged lips, and bags under eyes. The 展开更多
关键词 DERMAL FILLER ABUSE CLINICAL ABNORMALITIES Disfigurements
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Treatment of Egyptian Drama to Child Abuse 预览
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作者 Jailan M.Sharaf 《文化与宗教研究:英文版》 2019年第8期414-432,共19页
Child abuse is considered the priorities of those who are concerned with human rights.There are many children in Egypt who are affected by violence,abuse,and exploitation with many factors that worsen their situation.... Child abuse is considered the priorities of those who are concerned with human rights.There are many children in Egypt who are affected by violence,abuse,and exploitation with many factors that worsen their situation.The reasons for the high rate of child abuse are the combination of profound social problems,like poverty,family dysfunctional,lack of awareness,low educational attainment,and lack of safety net of child care pre-school as well as health care.Due to studies,drama is considered one of the most important means of entertainment in various television dramas.Also,drama is a pattern of cultural creativity and source of consciousness formation at the individual and collectively level,through its impact on cognitive processes,feelings,and shaping people vision of life.This study aimed at monitoring the treatment of drama to child’s issues,in the light of increasing rates of children labor,begging,child displacement,harassment and other issues,and accordingly the consequences of child abuse.The treatment of films study sample to children street and the focus on their loss of the sense of society are seen to be their greatest enemy.The seriousness of this problem increases because the number of these children is increasing.This is the alarm because they will turn on society,especially as there is need to shed light on them to solve their problems and contain them.We have to deal with those children psychologically first and to be qualified to deal with the community that brought them to this degree. 展开更多
关键词 CHILD ABUSE DRAMA CHILD sexual ABUSE CHILD DOMESTIC LABOR content analysis
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Drug Abuse in Zagazig University Students, Egypt: Cross Sectional Study, 2018 预览
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作者 Dalia M. Amin Samah A. Elnagdi Samar A. Amer 《职业病与环境医学(英文)》 2019年第2期37-49,共13页
Background: Drug addiction is a major public health and socioeconomic problem worldwide that annoys the Egyptian government, as it deals with youth within the age of productivity. Aim of the Work: To determine the pre... Background: Drug addiction is a major public health and socioeconomic problem worldwide that annoys the Egyptian government, as it deals with youth within the age of productivity. Aim of the Work: To determine the prevalence of drug abuse among Zagazig University students. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 750 students in Zagazig University from the beginning of November 2015 to the end of November 2016, after an informed verbal consent. Data were collected through a self-administrated questionnaire and the results of screening urine samples. Results: The prevalence of drug abuse in general was 7.41%. The prevalence of drug abuse in descending order was tetrahydrocannabinol (3.9%) followed by tramadol (1.9%) then benzodiazepines (0.67%), while, opium and barbiturates each one of them (0.47%). 18% of them were Polydrug users and were only males. Tramadol was the commonest drug to use in polydrug users. The prevalence of smoking was 16.81% and strongly related to gender as in males 26.1% were current smokers while in females only 1.4%. The prevalence of abusing alcohols was 6%, and all of them were males. Conclusion: The prevalence of drug abuse in Zagazig university students is considered high and a very serious problem damaging the youth and the community. Recommendation: Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate the risk factors of drug abuse and suggest the use of urine analysis for drugs of abuse for all students before joining the university. 展开更多
关键词 ABUSE ADDICTION STUDENTS
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女性新型毒品强戒者儿童期虐待及抑郁情绪调查研究
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作者 覃颖 查浩民 +4 位作者 周曹 刘燕菁 赵静雯 白婵 张仕健 《中国药物滥用防治杂志》 CAS 2019年第4期223-228,共6页
目的:了解贵阳市女性新型毒品滥用人群的基本特征、探讨新型毒品滥用与儿童期虐待和抑郁情绪间的关系。方法:采用一般情况调查问卷、儿童期虐待量表及流调用抑郁量表(CES-D)对贵阳市某强制戒毒所71名女性新型毒品滥用者和80名女性正常... 目的:了解贵阳市女性新型毒品滥用人群的基本特征、探讨新型毒品滥用与儿童期虐待和抑郁情绪间的关系。方法:采用一般情况调查问卷、儿童期虐待量表及流调用抑郁量表(CES-D)对贵阳市某强制戒毒所71名女性新型毒品滥用者和80名女性正常人群现场调查。结果:新型毒品滥用组与正常组相比,自身婚姻、父母婚姻、儿童期虐待及抑郁情绪间有统计学意义(P<0.05);非条件logistic回归分析,发现自身已婚(AOR=0.01,95%CI 0.01~0.12),父母离异(AOR=2.93,95%CI 1.05~8.20),儿童期情感虐待因子(AOR=1.22,95%CI 1.03~1.45),性虐待因子(AOR=1.33,95%CI 1.02~1.73),抑郁情绪(AOR=1.11,95%CI 1.06~1.17)。结论:在女性新型毒品滥用者中,自身已婚可能是保护性因素,而父母离异、儿童期情感虐待及性虐待、抑郁情绪可能是危险因素,对今后研究及戒毒实践有一定指导意义。 展开更多
关键词 女性 新型毒品 滥用 儿童期虐待 抑郁情绪
Pentazocine Abuse in Two Siblings with Sickle Cell Anaemia 预览
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作者 Samuel Kolade Ernest Israel Kayode Kolawole +4 位作者 Benedict Oluwasesan Olorunsola Oluwaseun Taofik Ogunkunle Oluwatosin Adeniyi Ojuola Tryphena Jadesola Oyedepo Segun Opeyemi Jenyo 《儿科学期刊(英文)》 2019年第2期148-153,共6页
Vaso-occlusive crisis is a common clinical manifestation in children with sickle cell anaemia, frequently warranting in-patient management with intravenous fluids, analgesics and occasionally anti-malaria and antibiot... Vaso-occlusive crisis is a common clinical manifestation in children with sickle cell anaemia, frequently warranting in-patient management with intravenous fluids, analgesics and occasionally anti-malaria and antibiotics. Pain is the principal symptom of vaso-occlusive crisis and it can affect any part of the body. Pentazocine is a well-known opioid analgesic, commonly used in the treatment of painful crisis in children affected by sickle cell anaemia. It was discovered in the 1950s and was initially thought to be addiction—proof, but this has been disproved over the years by reports of pentazocine dependence/addiction especially in patients living with chronic pain. There have been some case reports of pentazocine abuse/dependence among sickle cell disease patients in the literature, most of which are from Nigeria but none involved joint addiction by siblings. We therefore, report the case of two siblings, known sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) patients, referred to our emergency paediatric unit with history of recurrent painful crisis over a 10-month period leading to abuse of pentazocine. They were jointly managed successfully by the paediatric hematology and the pain and palliative units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and helped to overcome their abuse and addiction. 展开更多
关键词 PENTAZOCINE ABUSE Siblings SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA
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Problematic Internet use in drug addicts under treatment in public rehab centers 预览
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作者 Stefano Baroni Donatella Marazziti +2 位作者 Federico Mucci Elisa Diadema Liliana Dell’Osso 《世界精神病学杂志》 2019年第3期55-64,共10页
BACKGROUND Problematic Internet use(PIU)or Internet addiction has been recognized to be a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations,urges,or behaviors regarding computer use a... BACKGROUND Problematic Internet use(PIU)or Internet addiction has been recognized to be a behavioral addiction characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations,urges,or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that leads to impairment or distress resembling substance abuse.AIM To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of Internet use and abuse in a group of drug addicts from Southern Italy,by means of a specific questionnaire[“Questionario sull’Utilizzo delle Nuove Tecnologie”(QUNT)].METHODS All subjects(183)were heavy smokers,almost 50%of them used heroin and/or opioid compounds,30%alcohol,10%cannabis,8%cocaine,and 5%were polydrug users.Almost 10%of the individuals were also suffering from gambling disorder.RESULTS The time spent online was more than 4 hours a day in the total sample,with a slight prevalence in male subjects.Cocaine and cannabis users spent more than 6 hours online,significantly more than opioid and alcohol abusers.Distribution of the QUNT factors was not different in both sexes.Cocaine users showed higher scores at the“loss of control”,“pornography addiction”,and“addiction to social networks”factors,for the stimulant effect of this substance.Moreover,15 out of the total 17 cocaine users were pathological gamblers.Positive and statistically significant relationships were observed between some QUNT factors and body mass index.CONCLUSION These findings indicate that PIU is less severe in subjects taking sedative substances,such as heroin/opioids and alcohol,than in subjects taking stimulants.Alternatively,it may be used as a“stimulant”trigger in cocaine and cannabis users.Flattening effect of abuse drugs was noted on possible sex-related differences in QUNT items.We observed a sort of“protective”effect of a love relationship and/or living together with a partner,as those engaged subjects showed lower scores on different items than single subjects or those living alone.The relationship between time spent online(and related sedentary lifest 展开更多
关键词 INTERNET PROBLEMATIC INTERNET use BEHAVIORAL addictions Drug ABUSE Rehab CENTERS
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Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of abused drugs and their metabolites in a typical urban river in north China
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作者 Peng Hu Changsheng Guo +3 位作者 Yan Zhang Jiapei Lv Yuan Zhang Jian Xu 《环境科学与工程前沿(英文)》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第4期101-111,共11页
This study investigated the presence of 11 abused drugs and their metabolites, including amphetamine, methamphetamine (METH), ketamine, ephedrine (EPH), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methadone, morphine, heroin, codeine, ... This study investigated the presence of 11 abused drugs and their metabolites, including amphetamine, methamphetamine (METH), ketamine, ephedrine (EPH), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methadone, morphine, heroin, codeine, and methcathinone in the surface water and sediment samples of Beiyunhe River, a typical urban river flowing through Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces in North China. An analytical method of determining these abused drugs and their metabolites in water and sediment was developed and validated prior to sample collection in the study area. Results showed that METH and EPH were predominant in water and sediment samples. The total drug concentrations ranged from 26.6 to 183.0 ng/L in water and from 2.6 to 32.4 ng/g dry weight in sediment, and the drugs mainly originated from hospitals and sewage treatment plants. The average field-based sediment water distribution coefficients of abused drugs were calculated between 149.3 and 1214.0 L/kg and corrected by organic carbon. Quotient method was used to assess the risks. The findings revealed that these drugs and their metabolites at determined concentrations in water samples will not impair the aquatic ecosystem biologically, but their potential harmful effect on the function of the ecosystem and human health should not be overlooked. 展开更多
关键词 DRUGS of ABUSE OCCURRENCE DISTRIBUTION Urban river Environmental risk
Research on Drug-Patent Linkage System under the New Situation 预览
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作者 Huang Yufeng Luo Suping Yuan Hongmei 《亚洲社会药学》 2019年第1期7-14,共8页
Objective To explore the extent to which the drug-patent linkage system should be implemented in China. Methods The present situation of drug-patent linkage system internationally was analyzed. Then the practices of d... Objective To explore the extent to which the drug-patent linkage system should be implemented in China. Methods The present situation of drug-patent linkage system internationally was analyzed. Then the practices of drug-patent linkage system were discussed through such methods as literature reviews and quantitative scoring methods in combination of selecting the representative countries. Finally the extent to which the drugpatent linkage system should be implemented in China was explored through comparative analysis. Results and Conclusion Compared with the United States, China should establish a drug-patent linkage system that will weaken the protection of original patented drugs and promote the timely marketing of high-quality generic drugs and appropriately prevent the patent abuse. 展开更多
关键词 drug-patent LINKAGE system ORIGINAL patented DRUG GENERIC DRUG PATENT ABUSE
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新旧之间:民国时期的家长惩戒权与送惩权
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作者 景风华 《开放时代》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期69-83,7共16页
中国近代法制变革对家庭的重要影响之一,是用来自西方的法律名词“亲权”重新建构了父母与子女之间的法律关系。中华传统法律中的“子孙违犯教令”条,也因此变成了由教育权衍生出来的惩戒权与送惩权。北洋政府时期有关惩戒权的法律实践... 中国近代法制变革对家庭的重要影响之一,是用来自西方的法律名词“亲权”重新建构了父母与子女之间的法律关系。中华传统法律中的“子孙违犯教令”条,也因此变成了由教育权衍生出来的惩戒权与送惩权。北洋政府时期有关惩戒权的法律实践体现出鲜明的新旧融合特征。首先,送惩权的相对人并不是西方法学理论中的未成年子女,档案所揭示的绝大多数都是与父母同居共财的成年子女。其次,警察机构在父母惩戒权的实施方面起着至关重要的作用,而有着“济刑罚之穷”功能的教养局,则成为众多“不肖子”接受惩戒的场所。再次,父母意志在送惩期限的问题上起着重要作用。此外,随着自由平等学说传入中国,原本被视为天经地义的子女须服从父母的原则遭到挑战,一些与惩戒权相关的案件反映出家庭伦理的瓦解与重塑,警察机构则以较偏保守的立场,继续维护着父母的尊严:法律新添的虐待罪,又提出了惩戒与虐待界限何在的新问题。 展开更多
关键词 惩戒权 送惩权 教养局 子孙违犯教令 虐待
Explaining ADVA and TAADVA:Risk factors and correlates 预览
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作者 Karlie E. Stonard 《发展与教育心理学进展(英文)》 2019年第1期23-66,共44页
While research regarding the correlates and risk factors of Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (ADVA) has been established,less research has explored what factors might be associated with adolescent involvement in T... While research regarding the correlates and risk factors of Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (ADVA) has been established,less research has explored what factors might be associated with adolescent involvement in Technology-Assisted Adolescent Dating Violence and Abuse (TAADVA). This paper therefore reviews the literature to have reported on risk factors for ADVA and correlates of TAADVA in order to assess the current state of this knowledge base and look for similarities and differences between factors identified. A range of factors were identified that were important in ADVA and TAADVA victimisation and/or instigation and these are considered in terms of the level of theory that they can support in terms of their ability to explain ADVA and TAADVA,in addition to where they sit within an ecological framework. Due to research on TAADVA being relatively recent in comparison to ADVA,only correlates were identified in studies investigating associated factors whereas longitudinal risk factors have been well established with regard to ADVA that has been researched more extensively. Future research should attempt to standardise measures of risk factors and correlates in order to make comparisons more accurate and move research forward by developing a comprehensive theory of ADVA and TAADVA. 展开更多
关键词 ADOLESCENT DATING VIOLENCE and ABUSE Technology-Assisted
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规制知识产权滥用行为的多维认识 预览
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作者 陶冠东 《竞争政策研究》 2019年第3期40-50,共11页
随着经济社会的发展,我国对知识产权保护的力度逐渐加强,权利人维护自身合法权益的意识进一步增强,行政执法机关、司法机关受理的知识产权案件逐渐上升。但任何权利都有滥用的可能,知识产权由于其无形性,权利的边界天然模糊,权利人不能... 随着经济社会的发展,我国对知识产权保护的力度逐渐加强,权利人维护自身合法权益的意识进一步增强,行政执法机关、司法机关受理的知识产权案件逐渐上升。但任何权利都有滥用的可能,知识产权由于其无形性,权利的边界天然模糊,权利人不能正确认识权利边界,甚至利用知识产权侵害他人合法权益的情况也逐年增加。当前法律规范中,规制知识产权滥用的规定散见于民事基本法、知识产权专门法和《反垄断法》等多部法律规范中,但内容相对较为概括,而国家执法机关,尤其是司法机关通过案件审理的方式为权利人、社会公众清楚地认识知识产权的正当行使提供了行为准则。根本上来说,知识产权的制度目标在于以一定时间内的垄断性权利,换取权利人的智力贡献,而反垄断则是通过维护市场竞争的方式激励创新,二者有着共同的制度目标,共同推动经济社会发展,更好地实现消费者福利和社会公共利益。 展开更多
关键词 知识产权 权利滥用 专门法 《反垄断法》
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A trust-aware random walk model for return propensity estimation and consumer anomaly scoring in online shopping
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作者 Xiaolin LI Yuan ZHUANG +1 位作者 Yanjie FU Xiangdong HE 《中国科学:信息科学(英文版)》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第5期75-91,共17页
In online shopping, most of consumers will not clear their return reasons when submitting return requests(e.g., select the option 'other reasons'). Prior literature mostly investigates into the return event at... In online shopping, most of consumers will not clear their return reasons when submitting return requests(e.g., select the option 'other reasons'). Prior literature mostly investigates into the return event at the transaction level, and the underlying force of returns remains untracked. To deal with this problem, we propose a machine learning algorithm named as trust-aware random walk model(TARW). In the proposed model, four patterns of consumers can be identified in terms of return forces:(i) selfish consumers,(ii) honest consumers,(iii) fraud consumers, and(iv) irrelevant consumers. To profile consumers’ return patterns, we capture consumers’ similarities in order preferences and return tendencies separately. Based on consumers’ similarities, we obtain a return pattern trust network by introducing the trust network and collaborative filtering algorithms. Subsequently, we develop two important applications based on the trust network:(i)estimating consumers’ return propensities for product types;(ii) scoring the anomaly for consumers’ returns for one product. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments with the real-world data to validate the model’s effectiveness in predicting and tracing consumers’ returns. With the proposed model, we can help retailers improve the conversion rates of selfish consumers, retain honest consumers, and block fraud consumers. 展开更多
关键词 machine learning RETURN ABUSE random WALK collaborative filtering RETURN pattern
政治学视野下情商概念的滥用 预览
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作者 蒋政 《乐山师范学院学报》 2019年第3期108-114,共7页
情商是一个不够严谨的概念,容易被滥用,在反腐败、干部心理健康、社会创新能力等方面都有消极影响。在中国传统政治文化作用下,滥用情商概念的风险大大增加。要树立稳固的马克思主义正义观,建立刚性制度,尊重个人权利,形成社会共识,以... 情商是一个不够严谨的概念,容易被滥用,在反腐败、干部心理健康、社会创新能力等方面都有消极影响。在中国传统政治文化作用下,滥用情商概念的风险大大增加。要树立稳固的马克思主义正义观,建立刚性制度,尊重个人权利,形成社会共识,以防范情商概念在政治生活中的滥用。 展开更多
关键词 情商 滥用 反腐败 心理健康 创新
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合成大麻素检测方法的研究及应用 预览
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作者 刘彤彤 韩小燕 《广东化工》 CAS 2019年第8期93-93,92共2页
合成大麻素是当前国际危害形势最为严峻的七类新精神活性物质之一,也是目前世界上使用最广泛的毒品,因而引起社会的广泛关注。由于犯罪分子为了逃避法律制裁,导致出现了大麻素的多种活性物质,所以检测及鉴定的标准分析方法也也是多种多... 合成大麻素是当前国际危害形势最为严峻的七类新精神活性物质之一,也是目前世界上使用最广泛的毒品,因而引起社会的广泛关注。由于犯罪分子为了逃避法律制裁,导致出现了大麻素的多种活性物质,所以检测及鉴定的标准分析方法也也是多种多样。本文详细介绍了合成大麻素的基本情况、代谢过程、毒理学作用和检测方法,重点介绍了案件中合成大麻素的前处理过程,详细的仪器分析条件和谱图特征,防止危害社会事件的发生,打击违法犯罪具有重要的意义。 展开更多
关键词 合成大麻素 滥用 检测
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Cannabidiol does not display drug abuse potential in mice behavior
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作者 Adrián Viudez-Martínez María S.García-Gutiérrez +3 位作者 Juan Medrano-Relinque Carmen M.Navarrón Francisco Navarrete Jorge Manzanares 《中国药理学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期358-364,共7页
Recent evidence suggests that cannabidiol(CBD)may be useful for the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders.However,some controversy regarding its profile as a drug of abuse hampers the further development o... Recent evidence suggests that cannabidiol(CBD)may be useful for the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders.However,some controversy regarding its profile as a drug of abuse hampers the further development of basic and clinical studies.In this study,the behavioral profile of CBD as a potential drug of abuse was evaluated in C57BL/6J mice.Reinforcing properties of CBD(15,30,and 60 mg/kg;i.p.)were assessed using the conditioned place preference(CPP)paradigm.Spontaneous withdrawal symptoms and motor activity in the open field were examined 12 h after the last CBD administration(30 mg/kg/12 h,i.p.,6 days).CBD plasma concentrations were measured at 2,4,8,12,and 24 h after the administration of CBD(30 mg/kg,i.p.).Furthermore,an oral CBD selfadministration paradigm(50 mg/kg;CBD water-soluble 1.2 mg/mL)was performed to evaluate whether this drug produced any effects on motivation compared with a non-reinforcing substance(water).We found that CBD failed to induce CPP,withdrawal symptoms,or altered motor behavior 12 h after its administration.At that time,only traces of CBD were detected,ensuring that the lack of alterations in somatic signs and locomotor activity was not due to residual drug in plasma.Interestingly,mice displayed similar motivation and consumption of CBD and water.Taken together,these results show that CBD lacks activity as a drug of abuse and should stimulate the development of the basic and clinical studies needed to elucidate its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and drug use disorders. 展开更多
关键词 CANNABIDIOL CANNABINOID receptor drug ABUSE conditioned place PREFERENCE oral CBD SELF-ADMINISTRATION WITHDRAWAL syndrome
丙泊酚的滥用与药物依赖性及其可能机制
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作者 陈琪 李军 《中国药物依赖性杂志》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期96-99,共4页
丙泊酚是一种在临床上广泛使用的超短效静脉麻醉剂,具有镇静、催眠和遗忘的的作用。因丙泊酚在亚麻醉剂量使用时具有强烈的欣快效应,产生类似可卡因等精神兴奋剂的主观感觉,目前已成为麻醉护士娱乐性药物应用中第四大滥用药物。使用丙... 丙泊酚是一种在临床上广泛使用的超短效静脉麻醉剂,具有镇静、催眠和遗忘的的作用。因丙泊酚在亚麻醉剂量使用时具有强烈的欣快效应,产生类似可卡因等精神兴奋剂的主观感觉,目前已成为麻醉护士娱乐性药物应用中第四大滥用药物。使用丙泊酚缓解疼痛、压力、焦虑、失眠等是丙泊酚滥用及产生依赖性的主要原因。丙泊酚产生依赖性的主要机制可能与丙泊酚刺激VTA-NAc药物奖赏通路、糖皮质激素水平、大麻素水平等有关。人们尤其是医务人员对于丙泊酚滥用与药物依赖性的认知不足,对丙泊酚滥用及药物依赖性造成的危害也没有引起足够的重视,因此可从加强管控和危害教育等方面着手进行控制。 展开更多
关键词 丙泊酚 滥用 药物依赖
性别视角下老年人受虐待问题研究 预览
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作者 李伟峰 聂清华 《山东女子学院学报》 2019年第4期13-20,共8页
中国老年人遭受虐待状况呈现一定的性别差异,基于第三期中国妇女社会地位调查老年专卷数据的研究发现,老年人总体受虐待发生率约为7%,以精神虐待问题最为突出,老年女性受虐待发生率高于老年男性。究其原因,女性老年人偏低的受教育程度... 中国老年人遭受虐待状况呈现一定的性别差异,基于第三期中国妇女社会地位调查老年专卷数据的研究发现,老年人总体受虐待发生率约为7%,以精神虐待问题最为突出,老年女性受虐待发生率高于老年男性。究其原因,女性老年人偏低的受教育程度、收入、家庭地位等导致其社会经济地位和家庭地位也较低;“男大女小”的婚配模式和长寿但不健康的身体状况使得女性老年人遭受到更多的身体伤害和精神痛苦。此外,老年未婚男性照料和其孤独感也应该成为一个社会关注的问题。我们应充分发挥政府和非政府组织的作用,加强对文化程度低且贫困的老年人尤其是老年女性的政策和经济帮扶,加强其代际之间的情感交流和支持,充分发挥新闻媒体的宣传作用,真正做到尊老爱老,保障老年人的晚年生活。 展开更多
关键词 虐待 性别 老年人 女性
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惊恐障碍与童年创伤的关系研究进展 预览
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作者 杨晨 王振 邵阳 《上海交通大学学报:医学版》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期800-804,共5页
惊恐障碍(panic disorder,PD)是一种常见的、反复且不可预测的精神障碍,可严重影响患者的生活质量及社会功能。随着社会竞争环境的日益激烈,PD的发病率逐年递增,其在全球疾病负担中的比重也不断攀升。近年来,关于童年创伤与PD关系的研... 惊恐障碍(panic disorder,PD)是一种常见的、反复且不可预测的精神障碍,可严重影响患者的生活质量及社会功能。随着社会竞争环境的日益激烈,PD的发病率逐年递增,其在全球疾病负担中的比重也不断攀升。近年来,关于童年创伤与PD关系的研究日渐增多,涉及身体或情感虐待、身体或情感忽视、性虐待、家庭功能失调等多个方面的创伤对PD的影响;其中,童年期的分离焦虑可作为PD的一个预测因子与PD紧密相关。该文主要就PD患者童年期的躯体虐待、情感虐待、性虐待和与父母分离经历的研究进展进行综述。 展开更多
关键词 惊恐障碍 童年创伤 虐待 分离焦虑
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Structural insight into the serotonin (5-HT) receptor family by molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulation and systems pharmacology analysis
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作者 Yuan-qiang Wang Wei-wei Lin +5 位作者 Nan Wu Si-yi Wang Mao-zi Chen Zhi-hua Lin Xiang-Qun Xie Zhi-wei Feng 《中国药理学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第9期1138-1156,共19页
Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are proteins involved in various neurological and biological processes, such as aggression, anxiety, appetite, cognition, learning, memory, mood, sleep, and thermoregulation. They are common... Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are proteins involved in various neurological and biological processes, such as aggression, anxiety, appetite, cognition, learning, memory, mood, sleep, and thermoregulation. They are commonly associated with drug abuse and addiction due to their importance as targets for various pharmaceutical and recreational drugs. However, due to a high sequence similarity/identity among 5-HT receptors and the unavailability of the 3D structure of the different 5-HT receptor, no report was available so far regarding the systematical comparison of the key and selective residues involved in the binding pocket, making it difficult to design subtype-selective serotonergic drugs. In this work, we first built and validated three-dimensional models for all 5- HT receptors based on the existing crystal structures of 5-HT1B, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C. Then, we performed molecular docking studies between 5-HT receptors agonists/inhibitors and our 3D models. The results from docking were consistent with the known binding affinities of each model. Sequentially, we compared the binding pose and selective residues among 5-HT receptors. Our results showed that the affinity variation could be potentially attributed to the selective residues located in the binding pockets. Moreover, we performed MD simulations for 12 5-HT receptors complexed with ligands;the results were consistent with our docking results and the reported data. Finally, we carried out off-target prediction and blood–brain barrier (BBB) prediction for Captagon using our established hallucinogen-related chemogenomics knowledgebase and in-house computational tools, with the hope to provide more information regarding the use of Captagon. We showed that 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, and 5-HT7 were the most promising targets for Captagon before metabolism. Overall, our findings can provide insights into future drug discovery and design of medications with high specificity to the individual 5-HT receptor to decrease the risk of addiction and prevent drug abuse. 展开更多
关键词 5-HT RECEPTOR MOLECULAR docking MOLECULAR dynamics simulation SYSTEMS PHARMACOLOGY analysis off-target prediction DRUG abuse and addiction DRUG selectivity Captagon
Gender, Tradition, and Religion in Sabriya: Damascus Bitter Sweet and Pillars of Salt 预览
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作者 Wafaa H. Sorour 《文学与艺术研究:英文版》 2019年第3期284-295,共12页
The analysis of women’ contribution to Arabic literature brings to light novels written by Arab women novelists whose writings reflect the intricate factors restraining women between the tradition and the codes of Is... The analysis of women’ contribution to Arabic literature brings to light novels written by Arab women novelists whose writings reflect the intricate factors restraining women between the tradition and the codes of Islam. The Syrian writer Ulfat Idilbi and the Jordanian novelist Fadia Faqir delineate such entanglment elequently in both Sabriya: Damascus Bitter Sweet and Pillars of Salt. The paper previews some critical opinions namely of: the Egyptian American Professor of Women Studies and Religion, Leila Ahmed;the Moroccan Sociologist and writer, Fatima Mernessi;and the Algerian writer and film maker, Assia Djebar. Through manifesting theses critical views along with the two novels, the paper proposes that much of the gender inequalituy practised in the Arab societies and reflected in the two novels, might be rooted in the tradition, not the religion itself. 展开更多
关键词 Arab WOMEN WOMEN ABUSE Sharía-social customs Qur'an-Islamic TRADITION (Hadith)
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