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广州十三行担保制度与美国存款保险制度的创立

The Canton Guaranty System of Hong Merchants and the Establishment of Deposit Insurance System in the United States
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摘要 作为纽约州存款保险实验模仿对象的广州十三行担保制度,是为了维护行业整体对外信誉的事后赔偿制度安排,旨在防范个别行商倒闭风险破坏行商整体的对外贸易活动。在制度本身缺乏事前有效处置机制的情形下,清朝政府官员的盘剥和风险处置的强制摊派,加上外商违反商业逻辑的无损失交易和强制放贷行为,造成了行商行业整体的衰败。实际上,十三行担保制度在行商内部成为行业失败的原因,而在外部成为维持信用的机制。美国吸纳到银行监管中的存款保险,对广州十三行担保制度进行了扬弃,但仍然碰到政府干预及政治角力带来的无效。制度互鉴给我们认识存款保险制度的合理功能和实施条件提供了可能。 The Canton guaranty system of Hong merchants,which is imitated by the Safety Fund of New York State,is an ex post-compensation system arrangement to maintain the overall credit of the Hong merchants guild. Its purpose is to prevent the overall foreign trade activities from a individual Hong firm failure,in effect,originally industry self-discipline organizations. Absence of a prior and effective disposal mechanism in the system itself,the Qing government officials extraction and the compulsory allocation of risk disposal,together with the loss-free trading and compulsory lending behavior of foreign traders in violation of commercial logic,caused the full decline of the Guild. In fact,the Canton guaranty system motivated all Hong Merchants failure at the domestic stage,instead,made a Hong merchant acquired a credit over the whole world. The U.S. drew the essence from Chinese system by taking in deposit insurance under bank supervision,but it still suffers from government intervention and ineffective political rivalries. It is possible for us to understand the reasonable function and implementation condition of deposit insurance system.
作者 何平 He Ping(不详)
出处 《学术研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第7期77-84,177,共9页 Academic Research
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