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播期对高粱营养与食味品质的调控效应

Effects of the sowing dates on the nutritional and edible quality of sorghum
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摘要 为了确定高粱的适宜播期,实现优质高效生产,2013—2014年以高粱品种‘辽杂11’和‘沈杂5号’为试验材料,设置4月30日(T1)、5月14日(T2)和5月28日(T3)3个播期,测定两个高粱品种产量及籽粒中的粗蛋白、单宁、粗脂肪、直链淀粉和支链淀粉含量,利用快速黏度分析仪(rapid visco analyzer,RVA)对淀粉黏滞性进行测定,并对食用品质进行感官评价,同时分析气象要素对高粱营养和食味品质的影响。结果表明,播期推迟可以显著提高‘沈杂5号’的产量,而对‘辽杂11’产量无显著影响。播期推迟高粱籽粒粗蛋白和单宁含量呈降低趋势,直链淀粉、支链淀粉和总淀粉含量呈增加趋势,高粱淀粉的峰值黏度、崩解值、最终黏度、膨胀率也均呈增加趋势。‘辽杂11’T3处理食味品质综合得分分别比T1和T2高11.86%~12.81%和6.83%~8.44%,‘沈杂5号’T3处理食味品质综合得分分别比T1和T2高6.48%~7.18%和3.33%~4.06%,食味品质综合得分在播期间的差异达极显著水平。粗蛋白和单宁含量与食味指标(除冷粥质地外)呈极显著负相关,粗脂肪、直链淀粉、支链淀粉和总淀粉含量与食味指标呈显著或极显著正相关。峰值黏度、热浆黏度、崩解值、最终黏度、回复值与高粱的适口性、滋味、气味呈显著或极显著正相关。适当晚播(沈阳地区在5月28日),可减少高粱的粗蛋白和单宁含量,提高支链淀粉含量,增加峰值黏度和崩解值,从而提升了高粱的食味品质。 To determine the suitable sowing date of sorghum and realize high quality and efficient production,three sowing dates of April 30(T1),May 14(T2),and May 28(T3)during 20132014 were set with sorghum‘Liaoza 11’and‘Shenza 5’as the experimental materials.After harvest,the yield and nutritional contents of crude protein,tannin,crude fat,amylose,and amylopectin in the grains were measured.The viscosity of sorghum starch was measured using a Rapid Visco Analyzer(RVA),and the edible qualities were evaluated.Meanwhile,the effects of meteorological factors on the nutrition and edible quality of sorghum were analyzed.The results showed that a delay in the sowing date could significantly increase the yield of‘Shenza 5’but had no significant effect on‘Liaoza 11’.With the delayed sowing dates,the contents of crude protein and tannin in the grain decreased,while the contents of amylose,amylopectin and total starch increased.The delay in the sowing date also increased the peak viscosity,break down viscosity,final viscosity,and expansion rate of sorghum starch.As a result,the taste scores of the two sorghum hybrids increased with the delayed sowing dates.Compared with that of T1 and T2,the taste score of‘Liaoza 11’in T3 increased by 11.86%12.81%and 6.83%8.44%,respectively.Compared with that of T1 and T2,the taste score of‘Shenza 5’in T3 increased by 6.48%7.18%and 3.33%4.06%,respectively.The contents of crude protein and tannin were negatively correlated with the eating quality(except for the texture of cold porridge),and the contents of crude fat,amylose,amylopectin,and total starch were significantly or very significantly positively correlated with the edible quality.The peak viscosity,hot pulp viscosity,break down value,final viscosity,and consistence viscosity were significantly or very significantly positively correlated with the palatability,taste,and smell.We can conclude that a late sowing date(May 28 in Shenyang)can reduce the contents of crude protein and tannin of sorghum,and increase the contents
作者 张瑞栋 张壮 岳忠孝 李佳衡 陈小飞 徐晓雪 邢艺凡 姜冰 周宇飞 黄瑞冬 ZHANG Ruidong;ZHANG Zhuang;YUE Zhongxiao;LI Jiaheng;CHEN Xiaofei;XU Xiaoxue;XING Yifan;JIANG Bing;ZHOU Yufei;HUANG Ruidong(College of Agronomy,Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang 110866,China;Institute of Cash Crops,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Fenyang 032200,China)
出处 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第3期386-394,共9页 Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture
基金 国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-06-135-A17)资助。
关键词 播期 高粱 营养品质 食味品质 Sowing date Sorghum Nutritional quality Edible quality
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