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使职与差遣:中国古代政治制度变迁的一个基本路径

Assignment of Officials and Commissioners:A Basic Evolution Pattern of Ancient Political System of China
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摘要 促成古代政治制度变迁的动力、路径有很多,使职与差遣是其中最基本的一种,尤其是在内辅制度、地方监察制度与行政区划制度领域。通过使职与差遣,主要担负决策职能的内辅即宰相机构不断变迁、完善,具备了统筹性、团队型、扁平化的组织优势;通过使职与差遣,中央加强了对地方的监察,引起监察制度不断发生变化,这些变化使得行政区划与管理富有弹性并具备了较好的适应性。在很多情况下,使职与差遣制度是对正常政治体系运行中经常出现的效率不高、互相推诿等弊病的一种纠正、匡救措施,也是应付意外事件的一种应急性体制调整与适应,因而具有积极意义。但如果设计不当,它也容易造成对原有政治体系的冲击,产生机构臃肿、重屋叠构、职责不清、互相牵制、效率低下等问题。 The prime minister’s office, which was mainly responsible for decision-making, constantly changed and improved through commissioner assignment, and had the organizational advantages of overall planning, strong teamwork and flat organization. Through assignment of officials and commissioners, the central government strengthened its supervision over local governments, causing continuous changes of the supervision system. These changes made the administrative divisions and governance more flexible and adaptable. In many cases, the assignment system of officials and commissioners was a correctional and remedial measure to cope with malpractices of the regular political system(such as low efficiency and shift the blame/responsibility onto somebody) as well as an emergency system to handle the unexpected.Therefore, it is of positive significance. However, if poorly designed, this system would have negative impact on the original political system, resulting in problems such as overstaffed institutions, overlapping functions, ambiguous duties,working against one another, and low efficiency.
作者 李宜春 LI Yi-chun(College of History and Culture,Linyi University,Linyi,Shandong,276005)
出处 《深圳大学学报:人文社会科学版》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第6期126-133,共8页 Journal of Shenzhen University(Humanities & Social Sciences)
基金 山东省社会科学规划研究项目“齐鲁乡贤文化的历史传承与当代对外传播研究”(17CZCJ30)。
关键词 使职差遣 制度变迁 内辅制度 地方监察 行政区划 assignment system of officials and commissioners institutional change internal subsidiary system local supervision administrative division
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