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美洲大蠊可培养真菌多样性

Diversity of cultivable fungi isolated from Periplaneta americana
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摘要 为了解养殖环境下美洲大蠊携带真菌情况、促进其饲养和利用中真菌的卫生安全防控,以饲养和野生样品为材料,分离培养其体表和体内真菌,基于菌落形态,通过ITS rDNA片段测序和聚类分析进行菌种鉴定,并分析不同环境下美洲大蠊体表和体内真菌多样性和相似性.研究共分离鉴定211个菌株,划分为63个OTUs,至少隶属45属27科18目,以子囊菌门和担子菌门为主,其中酵母菌占绝对优势(76.8%),丝状真菌占分离菌株的23.2%.野生环境下美洲大蠊的真菌数量和多样性(131株,Shannon-Wiener指数H=3.391)均高于饲养环境(80株,H=3.140),二者物种相似度较低(Sorenson系数为0.3421);无论饲养还是野生其体表真菌数量和多样性均高于体内,体内真菌物种半数以上(饲养61.1%,野生57.9%)在体表同时检出,其中假丝酵母属、链状假丝酵母、尼泊尔德巴利酵母和哈萨克斯坦酵母属4个类群分布最广,在饲养和野生美洲大蠊的体表和体内均有检出.上述结果表明,美洲大蠊携带真菌与其生长环境具有相关性,控制饲养环境可降低虫体带菌数量;野生和饲养美洲大蠊体表体内均检出多种与条件致病菌和产毒真菌相关的物种,开发利用时应加以重视. Fungi carried by Periplaneta americana have mainly been studied in terms of the health problems they may cause as pests.To date,there have been no reported studies on fungi carried by artificially reared P.americana.In this study,the fungi carried by artificially reared P.americana were explored to provide a theoretical basis and reference for the prevention and control of fungi,to enable the safe breeding and utilization of cockroaches.Reared and wild P.americana were collected and fungal strains were isolated from the external surface and internal parts of the insects.Isolates were identified based on rDNA ITS sequencing and cluster analysis.Fungal diversity was compared for different parts of the insect body and different habitats of the insect.A total of 211 strains of fungi were isolated and grouped into 63 operational taxonomic units(OTUs),which belonged to at least45 genera,27 families,and 18 orders under Ascomycota,Basidiomycota,and Zygomycota phyla.The majority of these strains belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla.Among the identified strains,76.8% were yeasts,grouped into 37 OTUs,and23.2% were filamentous fungi,grouped into 26 OTUs.Both the quantity and diversity of fungi associated with P.americana varied according to its living environment.One hundred and thirty-one strains were isolated from insects in their natural environment,with a Shannon-Wiener index of 3.391,whereas 80 strains were isolated from the reared insects,with a ShannonWiener index of 3.140.Moreover,the similarity between living environments was low,with a Sorenson coefficient of 0.342 1.In both the natural and artificial rearing environment,more fungal strains and a higher diversity of fungi were obtained from the insect body surface than from its internal parts.More than half of the fungal species identified in internal parts(wild 57.9%,reared 61%) were also detected on the body surface.Candida,Diutina catenulata,Debaryomyces nepalensis,and Kazachstania are the most prevalent groups detected in the external and internal par
作者 马涛 赵敏 王成业 冯颖 MA Tao;ZHAO Min;WANG Chenye;FENG Ying(Research Institute of Resource Insects,Chinese Academy of Forestry,Kunming 650233,China)
出处 《应用与环境生物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第5期1145-1153,共9页 Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology
基金 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费项目(riricaf2014002Z)资助。
关键词 酵母菌 丝状真菌 美洲大蠊 饲养 野生 安全风险 yeast filamentous fungi Periplaneta americana reared wild risk of safety
作者简介 通讯作者:冯颖(E-mail:yingf@hotmail.com)。
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