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自由的四个层面

Four Perspectives of Freedom
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摘要 自由始终是相对于自然的一种意识的(或理性的)能力。今天,重新从理性批判的角度来考察和理解自由,已具有了充分的理由和必要的条件。这种考察在认识论上不再把科学认识和自由分割开来,而是把它们看作同一种活动的不同层面;也不再把道德知识与自然认识分割开来,而是把它们看成自由的不同层面。在这里,自由被分类为若干层面乃是因为它们是彼此部分重叠和交叉的,但位于同一个空-时结构。它们可以通过四个不同的维度和范式被理解和认识。意识确实具有这样一些自由的能力,而意识及其自由的最根本特征就是它们的不可还原、自主构造、自如决定和想象力。由于物理世界与意识存在着深不可测的解释鸿沟,意识和自由为什么具有这样的能力和特性,迄今无法得到有效和合理的解释。它们巨大的现实力量与其尚无解释之间形成了触目惊心的对照。因此,系统地讨论这些现象,区分它们的不同类型并予以清楚的规定,就是一项具有基础的重要性的工作。 In any case, in comparison with the nature, freedom is an ability of consciousness(or reason).Today, re-examining and re-understanding freedom from the perspective of the critiqueof reason has already had sufficient reasons and necessary conditions. Instead of separating scientific knowledge from freedom at the epistemic level, we consider them as different perspectives of one and the same activity,Nor do we distinguish between moral and scientific knowledge, we simply take them to be different perspectives of freedom.Freedom is classified as a number of perspectives here because they are partially overlapping and intersecting each other, but locating in samespace-time structure. They can be understood and recognized through four different dimensions and paradigms. Consciousness does have the ability to have such freedoms, and the most fundamental characteristic of consciousness and its freedom is their irreducibility,autonomous construction, free decision, and imagination. Since there is a deep and unpredictable interpretation gap between the physical world and consciousness, why consciousness and freedom have such capabilities and characteristics, so far no effective and reasonable explanation can be obtained. Their enormous real capacity and their unaccountability show a shocking contrast. Therefore, systematically describing these phenomena, distinguishing them from different types and clearly defining them is a work of fundamental importance.
作者 韩水法 HAN Shuifa(不详)
出处 《学术月刊》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第9期5-17,共13页 Academic Monthly
关键词 意识自由 层面 物理世界还原 范式 构造 consciousness freedom perspective physical world irreducibility paradigm construction
作者简介 韩水法,北京大学哲学系/外国哲学研究所教授(北京100871)。
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