With the development and implementation of concepts such as triple play, mobile Internet, Internet of things, cloud computing and intelligent city, China is launching the 'broadband China' national development strategy. This will further accelerate the development of broadband in China, and further promote the related industries, especially optical communications technology, systems and devices and the rapid development of electronic information industry, while promoting the metro and trunk optical transport network construction and expansion, and FTTx optical network construction and bandwidth speed. Under the guidance and promotion of the strategy of 'broadband China', China is entering the new period of broadband construction. The three major telecom operators have further accelerated the construction of FTTx optical access network. In order to meet the needs of this development, ultra-high-speed, large capacity, ultra-long distance optical transport network technology research will accelerate;fi ber access technology will be the next generation of broadband optical access network NG PON technology development and evolution. This paper mainly discusses the development history and development status of optical fi ber communication technology, the technology used and its future development trend.