以山东胜利油田沾3区注入水和采出液为研究对象,利用16S r RNA高通量测序技术,分析了油相样本、水相样本以及注入水样本的微生物群落结构.结果发现沾3油藏微生物多样性较高,注入水样本中细菌群落多样性最高,古菌群落多样性最低;而采出液油相样本的微生物群落多样性较采出液水相样本低.采出液微生物组的特征与注入水中微生物组的特征存在较大差异,具有明显的生境特异性.采出液油相样本与水相样本中主要的细菌类群包括γ-变形菌纲、ε-变形菌纲、α-变形菌纲、放线菌纲和梭状芽孢杆菌纲.在属水平上,采出液以假单胞菌占优势,而注入水中的优势菌属为硫单胞菌.采出液中古菌主要类群为甲烷微菌纲、甲烷杆菌纲、嗜盐菌纲、热原体纲、热变形菌纲和热球菌纲,尤其以鬃毛甲烷菌科和甲烷杆菌为主.对注入水和采出液水相中的油藏微生物与环境理化因子进行冗余分析(RDA)发现,注入水细菌和古菌群落均主要受SO42-浓度影响,采出液水相样本中的细菌群落主要受Ca2+浓度和pH等影响,而古菌群落则主要受Cl-, Mg2+和HCO3-浓度影响.该研究结果揭示了微生物在高温油藏环境中的空间分布特征及受控因素,为今后定向调控油藏微生物群落、进而提高微生物驱油的采油率奠定了基础.
The purpose of this study was to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities in a high temperature oil reservoir and their relationships with environmental factors. Production liquid(further separated to oil and water samples) and injection water samples were collected in the Zhansan area of the Shengli Oilfield, Shandong Province and subjected to 16 S r RNA gene analysis by high-throughput sequencing. The physicochemical properties of the water samples were also analyzed.The bacterial communities in the Zhansan area showed a relatively high diversity compared with those in other oil reservoirs previously reported. High diversity may be due to nutrients introduced in the injection water during microbial enhanced oil recovery in this area. The highest diversity of bacterial communities was observed in the injection water samples and the lowest in oil samples of the production liquid. Bacterial compositions showed a clustering pattern according to the sample types. Specifically, the dominant bacterial groups in the oil and water samples of the production liquid were γ-Proteobacteria,ε-Proteobacteria,α-Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes and Clostridium. At the genus level,Pseudomonas was dominant in both oil and water samples of the production liquid, whereas the bacterial community in injection water was dominated by Sulfurimonas. In general, Pseudomonas spp. are mesophilic facultative anaerobes and many species of this genus can degrade petroleum fractions. The presence of this genus in the high temperature oil reservoir suggests that they were associated with low-to moderate temperature zones in contact with various hydrocarbons. As for the archaeal biomes, the diversity was low in all samples. The major archaeal groups in the production liquid were Methanomicrobia, Halobacteria, Thermoplasmata, Thermoprotei, and Thermococci, dominated by Methanosaeta and Methanobacteriaceae especially. They also showed a clustering pattern according to sample types. Redundancy analysis(RDA) of microbiomes and environmental par
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