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不同生态条件下氮肥优化管理对杂交中稻稻米品质的影响 预览

Influence of optimized nitrogen management on the quality of medium hybrid rice under different ecological conditions
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摘要 在四川省温江和射洪试验点,采用单因素随机区组试验设计,以‘F 优498’水稻品种为试验材料,研究了不同氮肥处理[普通尿素优化施肥、减氮15%优化施肥、增氮15%优化施肥, PASP(聚天门冬氨酸)尿素1次施肥、2 次施和优化施肥]对稻米品质的影响。结果显示,温江的碾米品质、外观品质和籽粒粗蛋白含量较优;射洪的峰值黏度和崩解值较高,消减值较低,蒸煮食味品质较好,同时直链淀粉含量较高。随着氮肥的施用,稻米碾米品质、直链淀粉含量和籽粒粗蛋白含量显著提高,崩解值显著降低;同时导致射洪生态点的峰值黏度增加,消减值减少;温江生态点的稻米外观品质变优,峰值黏度减小,消减值增加。较农民经验性施肥处理,普通尿素优化处理和PASP 尿素处理提高了直链淀粉含量和籽粒粗蛋白含量,降低了温江垩白粒率和垩白度,改善了外观品质;氮肥优化处理降低了峰值黏度和崩解值,提高了消减值,使稻米蒸煮食味品质变差,同时提高了射洪精米率和温江整精米率。较优化施肥处理, PASP 尿素处理降低了两试验点的精米率、整精米率和温江垩白粒率,增加了射洪的垩白粒率和垩白度,使外观品质变差;同时PASP 尿素1 次施肥和2 次施肥处理降低了直链淀粉含量和籽粒粗蛋白含量;PASP 尿素优化施肥处理降低了两试验点的峰值黏度、崩解值和温江直链淀粉含量,提高了两试验点的籽粒粗蛋白含量和射洪直链淀粉含量。较优化施肥处理,减氮15%和增氮15%优化施肥处理降低了两试验点的直链淀粉含量、整精米率及温江垩白粒率,增加了射洪垩白粒率和垩白度。与PASP 尿素1 次和2 次施肥相比, PASP 尿素优化施肥显著降低了垩白度、峰值黏度和崩解值,增加了消减值和籽粒粗蛋白含量;同时导致射洪生态点的整精米率降低,垩白粒率和直链淀粉含量增加;温江生态点的垩白粒率降低,� The effects of different nitrogen (N) treatments on rice quality were studied at two different ecological sites (Wenjiang and Shehong), using single-factor experiment with a randomized block design and ‘F You 498’ as the test material. The results showed that the milling quality, appearance, and grain crude protein content were better in the Wenjiang rice. In the Shehong rice, the peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity were higher and the setback viscosity was lower;the cooking and eating qualities were better and the amylose content was higher. With N fertilizer applied, the rice milling quality and amylose and grain crude protein contents were significantly increased, and the breakdown viscosity was significantly decreased. At the same time, N fertilization increased the peak viscosity and reduced the setback viscosity of Shehong rice, whereas it improved the appearance, decreased the peak viscosity, and increased the reduction value of Wenjiang rice. Compared with the fertilization practices of farmers, the optimal N fertilizer treatments (ONM1: optimized N management;ONM-N1: optimized N management with 15% N reduction;and ONM+N1: optimized N management with 15% N increase) and optimized N management of polyaspartic acid-urea (PASP-urea) treatment increased the amylose and grain crude protein contents. Optimal N fertilizer treatment reduced the chalky rice rate and chalkiness ratio, and improved the appearance of Wenjiang rice. At both ecological sites, the optimal N fertilizer treatment reduced the peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity, increased the setback viscosity, and worsened the cooking and eating qualities of the rice. At the same time, it increased the milled rice rate of Shehong rice and the head rice rate of Wenjiang rice. In comparison with the ONM1 treatment, PASP-urea treatment reduced the milled rice ratios and head rice rates of the two types of rice and the chalky rice rate of Wenjiang rice, whereas it increased the chalky rice rate and chalkiness ratio of Shehong rice, worsening its app
作者 李书先 蒲石林 邓飞 王丽 胡慧 廖爽 李武 任万军 LI Shuxian;PU Shilin;DENG Fei;WANG Li;HU Hui;LIAO Shuang;LI Wu;REN Wanjun(College of Agronomy,Sichuan Agricultural University / Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology,Ecology,and Cultivation in Southwest,Ministry of Agriculture,Wenjiang 611130,China)
出处 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期1042-1052,共11页 Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(31871564) 国家粮食丰产增效科技创新专项课题(2018YFD0301204) 四川省育种攻关项目(2016NYZ0051)资助.
关键词 水稻 生态条件 氮肥管理 PASP尿素 稻米品质 Rice Ecological conditions Nitrogen management PASP urea Rice quality
作者简介 李书先,主要研究方向为水稻高产优质栽培。E-mail:2534619749@qq.com;通信作者:邓飞,主要研究方向为水稻高产优质栽培,E-mail:273634096@qq.com;通信作者:任万军,主要研究方向为水稻优质高产及机械化栽培,E-mail:rwjun@126.com.
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