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化肥减量配施有机肥对皖北夏玉米养分吸收及氮素利用效率的影响 预览 被引量:1

Effects of combination of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic manure on nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization efficiency of summer maize in Northern Anhui Province
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摘要 [目的]针对皖北小麦玉米轮作区化肥过量施用和有机废弃物资源利用低的现状,探讨了皖北地区夏玉米化肥减量与有机肥配合施用的可行性及化肥减量比例。[方法]采用田间试验,研究100%化肥(NPK)、有机肥(OF)、化肥减量(0%、20%、40%)配施有机肥(OF100、OF80和OF60)对夏玉米养分吸收和氮素利用效率的影响。[结果]施肥可改善玉米各生育期营养状况,提高玉米N、P、K养分吸收量。与NPK处理比较,OF60、OF80和OF100处理100kg籽粒产量所需要的N含量分别下降0.04、0.13和 0.27 kg,所需K 2O含量下降0.19、0.13和 0.25 kg,所需P2O5 含量基本持平。与NPK处理相比,OF80处理玉米孕穗期至收获期地上部植株N、P、K养分吸收量占玉米整个生育期地上部植株N、P、K吸收总量的比例提高3.2%、11.8%、9.1%,产量显著提高9.7%,肥料总氮利用率、化肥氮利用率、肥料总氮农学利用率、化肥氮农学利用率、肥料总氮偏生产力、化肥氮偏生产力分别显著提高6.4%、7.4%、4.6kg·kg^-1 、3.1kg·kg^-1 、6.7 kg ·kg^-1 、13.3 kg ·kg^-1 。[结论]皖北夏玉米种植以化肥减量20%配施有机肥处理,即基肥施用有机肥1 500 kg·hm^-2 ,无机复混肥600 kg·hm^-2 ,追肥尿素90 kg·hm^-2 较为适宜。 [Objectives] Aiming at the situation of excessive application of chemical fertilizer and lower utilization of organic waste resources in wheat-maize rotation region of Northern Anhui Province,we discussed the feasibility and the ratio of the combination of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic manure in summer maize.[Methods] The effects of 100% chemical fertilizer(NPK),organic manure(OF),the combination of chemical fertilizer reduction(0%,20%,40%)with organic manure(OF100,OF80 and OF60)on nutrient absorption and nitrogen utilization efficiency of summer maize were studied by field experiment.[Results] Fertilization could improve the nutrient status and increase N,P and K nutrient uptake at different growth stages of maize. Compared with the NPK treatment,the N requirement of the OF60,OF80 and OF100 treatment to form 100 kg grain yield decreased 0.04,0.13 and 0.27 kg,respectively,the K2O requirement reduced 0.19,0.13 and 0.25 kg,respectively,and the P2O5 requirement was basically flat. Compared with the NPK treatment,the OF80 treatment could increase the percentage of N,P and K uptake of maize aerial part at booting stage to harvest period of the total absorption in the whole maize growth period 3.2%,11.8% and 9.1%,respectively;significantly increase the maize yield by 9.7%;significantly increase the total N utilization rate,chemical fertilizer N utilization rate,total N agronomic efficiency,chemical fertilizer N agronomic efficiency,total N partial factor productivity and chemical fertilizer N partial factor productivity 6.4%, 7.4%,4.6 kg · kg^-1 ,3.1 kg · kg^-1 ,6.7 kg · kg^-1 ,13.3 kg·kg^-1 ,respectively.[Conclusions] Comprehensive consideration,the suitable fertilization management model of summer maize in Northern Anhui Province is the combination of chemical fertilizer reduction 20% with organic manure(OF80),i.e. 1 500kg·hm^-2 organic manure and 600kg·hm^-2 inorganic compound fertilizer as basic fertilizer,and 90kg·hm^-2 urea as top dressing.
作者 李孝良 胡立涛 王泓 张云晴 吴长昊 汪建飞 LI Xiaoliang;HU Litao;WANG Hong;ZHANG Yunqing;WU Changhao;WANG Jianfei(College of Resource and Environment,Anhui Science and Technology University,Fengyang 233100,China;Key Laboratory of Bio-organic Fertilizer Creation,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs,Bengbu 233400,China)
出处 《南京农业大学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期118-123,共6页 Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University
基金 安徽省科技攻关项目(1604a0702011,16030701102) 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0300901-2).
关键词 化肥减量 养分吸收 氮素利用效率 砂姜黑土 夏玉米 chemical fertilizer reduction nutrient uptake nitrogen utilization efficiency lime concretion black soil summer maize
作者简介 通信作者:李孝良,博士,教授,主要从事水土资源利用与管理研究,E-mail:lixl@ahstu.edu.cn。
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