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豆粕微生物固态发酵工艺优化及其营养物质含量变化 预览 被引量:6

Process Optimization of Solid State Fermentation of Soybean Meal by Microorganisms and Its Nutrient Changes
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摘要 本试验以小肽含量为指标,对解淀粉芽孢杆菌单菌固态发酵豆粕以及解淀粉芽孢杆菌、植物乳杆菌和酿酒酵母菌3个菌种混菌固态发酵豆粕的工艺条件进行优化,并对其发酵前后的营养物质含量变化进行研究。通过解淀粉芽孢杆菌、植物乳杆菌和酿酒酵母3个试验菌的生长曲线确定其接种到固态培养基的最佳接种时间。采用单因素试验设计研究解淀粉芽孢杆菌接种量、温度、料水比、发酵时间4个因素对豆粕发酵产小肽的影响,并在此基础上采用四因素三水平的正交试验设计对单、混菌固态发酵豆粕的工艺条件进行优化。对豆粕发酵前后豆粕营养物质含量、大豆球蛋白含量、蛋白质分子质量、发酵产物pH进行测定。结果显示:3株试验菌接在各自种子培养基扩大培养至21h为其接种到固态培养基的最佳时间。解淀粉芽孢杆菌单菌固态发酵豆粕的最佳工艺条件为:接种量为10%、温度为40℃、料水比为1.0∶1.2、发酵时间为72h;解淀粉芽孢杆菌、植物乳杆菌、酿酒酵母混菌固态发酵豆粕的最佳工艺条件为:接种量为15%、温度为31℃、料水比为1.0∶1.0发酵时间为120h,3个菌株的接种比例为:解淀粉芽孢杆菌∶植物乳杆菌∶酿酒酵母=9∶3∶2。经微生物发酵后,发酵产物中小肽、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、粗脂肪含量较发酵前均得到显著提高(P<0.05),粗纤维含量则显著下降(P<0.05);单菌发酵组和混菌发酵组发酵产物中大豆球蛋白含量均较未发酵组显著降低(P<0.05);单菌发酵组和混菌发酵组发酵产物中蛋白质分子质量较未发酵组降低;混菌发酵组发酵产物的pH较未发酵组显著降低(P<0.05),而单菌发酵组发酵产物的pH则与未发酵组差异不显著(P>0.05)。综上所述,豆粕经微生物固态发酵后营养价值在一定程度上得到改善,大分子蛋白质被降解,pH也发生了变化,并且单菌发酵和混菌发酵的效果� This experiment was conducted to optimize the process conditions of solid state fermentation of soybean meal by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens or mixed strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,Lactobacillus plantarum,Saccharomyces cerevisiae using small peptide content as index and to study the nutrient changes for soybean meal before and after fermentation.The optimum inoculation time of the solid fermentation medium was determined by the growth curve of three strains(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,Lactobacillus plantarum,Saccharomyces cerevisiae).The effects of 4 factors of inoculation amount,temperature,feed:water and fermentation time on small peptide production of soybean meal fermented by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using single factor design were study,and on this basis the process conditions of soybean meal fermented by single strain or mixed strains using orthogonal experiment design in three factors and four levers were optimized.The nutrient contents,soybean globulin content,protein molecular mass and the pH of the fermented product for soybean meal before and after fermentation were determined.The results showed as follows:the best inoculation time to the solid medium of the 3 strains were after expanding in their respective seed medium for 21 h.The optimum process conditions for solid state fermentation of soybean meal by single strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were:inoculation amount was 10%,temperature was 40℃,feed∶water was 1.0∶1.2,and the fermentation time was 72 h;the optimum process conditions for solid state fermentation of soybean meal by mixed strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were:inoculation amount was 15%,temperature was 31℃,feed∶water was 1.0∶1.0,and the fermentation time was 120 h,and the proportion of inoculation of the strains was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens∶Lactobacillus plantarum∶Saccharomyces cerevisiae=9∶3∶2.After fermentation by microorganisms,the contents of small peptide,crude protein,ash and ether extract were
出处 《动物营养学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第7期2749-2762,共14页 CHINESE JOURNAL OF ANIMAL NUTRITION
基金 国家肉鸡产业技术体系(CARS-41)。
关键词 豆粕 单菌 混菌 发酵 工艺优化 营养物质 soybean meal single strain mixed strains fermentation process optimization nutrient
作者简介 吝常华(1990—),女,河南安阳人,硕士研究生,从事家禽营养研究。E-mail:1353371280@qq.com。;信作者:蔡辉益,研究员,博士生导师,E-mail:caihuiyi@caas.cn。
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