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旱作区环保型材料覆盖对马铃薯生长的影响及其降解特性 预览 被引量:1

Effect of environmental-friendly materials mulch on potato growth and their degradation properties in dry-farming areas
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摘要 2015年在宁夏南部旱作区进行了垄上覆盖普通地膜结合内覆盖不同材料(普通地膜、玉米秸秆、生物降解膜、麻地膜及液体地膜)的降解特性及其土壤水温效应对马铃薯生长的影响研究。结果表明,不同覆盖材料对马铃薯生育期土壤水温状况的调节作用表现为:生物降解膜覆盖处理0~25 cm土层平均土壤温度较不覆盖处理(对照)提高1.4℃,而秸秆和液态地膜覆盖处理在整个生育期分别低于对照1.5℃和0.7℃;地膜和秸秆覆盖处理在马铃薯生育期具有较强保墒作用,地膜、秸秆、生物降解膜、麻地膜覆盖处理下0~200 cm土层平均土壤贮水量较对照分别增加5.1%、6.2%、3.7%、3.1%;在生育前期,地膜、生物降解膜和秸秆覆盖处理植株株高及茎粗显著高于对照,而生育中后期麻地膜和秸秆覆盖处理显著高于对照,在整个生育期液体地膜覆盖处理马铃薯生长与不覆盖无差异。地膜、秸秆和麻地膜覆盖处理下马铃薯增产显著,分别较对照增产34.3%、56.1%、11.3%;秸秆、地膜和液态膜覆盖处理商品薯率分别较对照提高4.7%、3.4%、3.0%,以秸秆覆盖处理的纯收益最高(19 676.1元·hm-2)。在马铃薯收获期液态地膜可完全降解,70%以上麻地膜发生降解,生物降解膜次之。覆盖秸秆措施通过调节土壤水温状况可实现增产增收,是宁南旱区马铃薯覆盖栽培的有效措施。 A field experiment was conducted in dry-farming areas of southern Ningxia in 2015 to determine the effect of different mulching material on degradation characteristics,soil water-temperature,growth,yield and economic benefit of potato. In the experiments,the ridges were covered with plastic film in all ridges and furrow rainfall harvesting system treatments,while different furrow treatments were mulched with plastic film,maize straw,biodegradable film,bast fiber film,liquid film. The ridges were covered with plastic films and without mulching in furrow was used as the control. Our results showed that different mulching materials had the effect of adjusting soil water and temperature. The average temperature in 0 ~ 25 cm soil layer under biodegradable film mulch was 1.4℃higher than that of the control. In contrast,the temperature under corn straw and liquid film covering was 1.5℃ and0.7℃ lower than that of the control. The plastic film and maize straw mulch have great function of conserving soil moisture,followed by the biodegradable film,bast fiber film mulch treatment. The soil water storage( 0 ~ 200 cm)for the plastic film,maize straw,biodegradable film,and bast fiber film covering treatments were 5. 1%,6. 2%,3.7%,and 3.1% higher than that of the control,respectively. The plant height and stem diameter of plastic film,biodegradable film,and maize straw mulch treatments were significantly higher than that of control in the early stage of potato,while those of bast fiber film and maize straw mulch treatments were significantly higher than that of con-trol in the middle and later stage of potato. There was no difference in crop growth between liquid film and the control during the whole growth stage of potato. Higher potato yields were found in treatments with plastic film,maize straw,bast fiber film mulch and the yields significantly increased by 34.3%,56.1%,and 11.3% compared to the control,respectively. The commodity rates with maize straw,plastic film,and liquid film mulch treatment were the highest,
作者 王兴文 侯贤清 李文芸 虎孝海 李向贵 杨喆 李荣 WANG Xing-wen, LIOU Xian-qing, LI Wen-yun, LIU Xiao-hai, LiXiang-gui, YANG Zhe,Li Rong ( School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, YinChuan, Ningxia 750021, China)
机构地区 宁夏大学农学院
出处 《干旱地区农业研究》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第3期86-92,112共8页 Agricultural Research in the Arid Areas
基金 宁夏回族自治区级大学生创新创业训练计划项目(20150126) 国家自然科学基金项目(31760370)
关键词 环保型覆盖材料 降解特性 马铃薯生长 土壤温度 土壤水分 cnvimntzmntal-friendly mulching mamrial degradation properties poLato growth soiltempcralure soil waler
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