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授粉对猕猴桃果实发育及种子数的影响 预览 被引量:2

Effects of pollination on kiwifruit development and seed number
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摘要 【目的】分析花粉悬浮液稀释倍数和授粉时间对‘米良1号’猕猴桃果实大小、品质及坐果率的影响。【方法】首先研究‘米良1号’的果实发育模式,比较‘米良1号’和‘徐香’、‘金魁’的开花频度;然后以‘米良1号’为对象,分析不同花粉悬浮液稀释倍数(200,400,800,1 200倍)和授粉时间(花后0,1,2,3,4d)处理下,采收后及可食状态下猕猴桃果实的纵径、横径、侧径,品质指标和坐果率的变化,探明猕猴桃单果种子数与单果质量及花粉悬浮液稀释倍数之间的关系,最终确定‘米良1号’的最佳花粉稀释倍数和授粉时间。【结果】(1)在果实发育前期,猕猴桃果实迅速膨大;在果实发育后期,果实纵径、横径和侧径增长缓慢。3个猕猴桃品种雌花开放时间为4~5d,其中‘米良1号’雌花开放最早,‘徐香’雌花开放较晚,‘金魁’雌花开放最晚。(2)无论是釆后还是达到可食状态的猕猴桃果实,随着花粉悬浮液稀释倍数增加,猕猴桃果实纵径、横径和侧径均呈下降趋势,单果质量减少,可溶性固形物含量总体先减后增;但花粉悬浮液稀释倍数对果实硬度影响不显著。除稀释800倍处理外,其他稀释倍数处理的坐果率均在80%以上。(3)无论是釆后还是达到可食状态的猕猴桃果实,随着花授粉时间推迟,猕猴桃果实纵径、横径和侧径均呈下降趋势,单果质量和可溶性固形物含量总体减少;但授粉时间对果实硬度影响不显著。除花后2d授粉处理外,其余授粉时间处理的坐果率均在95%以上。(4)单果种子数与果实质量之间呈显著线性相关,果实内种子越多,果实越重。【结论】对‘米良1号’品种猕猴桃,建议花粉悬浮液稀释倍数在200~400倍,在雌花开放后0~2d,且雌花开放数在75%以上进行授粉效果最好。 【Objective】Effect of pollination concentration and time on size,quality and fruit setting of kiwifruit ‘Miliang-1' were analyzed.【Method】Longitudinal diameter,transverse diameter and lateral diameter of ‘Miliang-1' kiwifruit were tested under different pollen suspension dilution times(200,400,800 and 1 200 times)and different pollination dates(0,1,2,3,4 days after flower opening).Quality indexes(including fruit weight,soluble solid content,fruit firmness and seed number per fruit)and fruit setting ratio were also tested.Development pattern of kiwifruit was studied and flowering frequencies of‘Miliang-1',‘Xuxiang'and ‘Jinkui'were compared to find out the relationship of seed number per fruit with weight of single fruit and pollen suspension dilution times.【Result】(1)In the early period of fruit development,kiwifruit expanded rapidly,while longitudinal diameter,transverse diameter and lateral diameter of‘Miliang-1'kiwifruit increased slowly in the late stage.Female flowers opening times of the three kiwifruitvarieties were 4-5 days.‘Miliang-1' was the first,followed by ‘Xuxiang' and ‘Jinkui'.(2)Either when fruits were picked or after ripening,with the increase of pollen suspension dilution time,longitudinal diameter,transverse diameter,lateral diameter of‘Miliang-1'kiwifruit had a downward trend,furit weight decreased and soluble solids contents increased firstly and then decreased in generally.However,pollen suspension dilution time had no significant effects on fruit firmness.Excep 800 dilution times,fruit setting rate of all other treatments were above 80%.(3)Either when fruits were picked or after ripening,with the delay of pollination date,longitudinal diameter,transverse diameter and lateral diameter of‘Miliang-1'kiwifruit had a downward trend,fruit weight and soluble solids contents decreased in general.While pollination date had no significant effects on fruit firmness.Except pollination 2 days after flower opening,fruit setting
作者 阎永齐 陈成 刘吉祥 万春雁 将水平 YAN Yongqi, CHEN Cheng, LIU Jixiang, WAN Chunyan,JIANG Shuiping (Zhenjiang Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Jiangsu Hilly Area, Jurong, Jiangsu 212400, China)
出处 《西北农林科技大学学报:自然科学版》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第2期65-72,共8页 Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech Univ of Agr and
基金 江苏省农业科技自主创新项目“优质猕猴桃品种的引选及配套栽培技术研究”(CX(14)2019)
关键词 猕猴桃 授粉 果实发育 kiwifruit pollination fruit development
作者简介 阎永齐(1963-),男,江苏句容人,副研究员,主要从事葡萄、桃、猕猴桃等果树栽培技术研究。E—mail:zjnks17yyq@126.com
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