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北方国家水稻区域试验近15年参试品种分析 被引量:6

Variety Analysis of Northern Rice Regional Trials in Recent 15 Years
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摘要 通过对2001—2015年北方稻区国家水稻区域试验数据分析,发现北方稻区参试品种数量稳中有增,区域试验规模不断扩大;水稻品种产量水平有了明显的提高,单产从2001年的9.08t/hm2增加到2015年的10.11t/hm2,增加了11.3%。通过分析产量构成因素发现,北方稻区必需有一定数量的有效穗数做基础,同时协调好穗粒数、结实率和千粒重的关系,才能获得较高的产量。北方水稻区域试验品种优质率平均在60%以上,品质总体较好;早熟中早粳和中熟中早粳品质优于黄淮粳稻组和晚熟中早粳。从主要米质指标上看,整精米率和直链淀粉含量相对较好,而垩白粒率和垩白度相对较差,是影响北方稻米品质的主要因素。北方稻区平均每年有32.7%的品种达中抗稻瘟病及以上水平,同时每年约有40%的品种因稻瘟病抗性不达标被淘汰;而且年度间稻瘟病抗性品种比例波动较大,说明北方水稻品种稻瘟病抗性不强、不稳定,稻瘟病抗性育种研究还需进一步提高和加强。 Rice regional trial is a test platform and showcase for new rice varieties. Rice breeding progress can be seen from the performance of rice varieties in regional trials. Based on the data from national rice regional trials in northern China from 2001 to 2015, we analyzed the difference of main agronomic traits among years and groups. The results showed that: the number of testing variety has been increasing steadily. The average yield increased by 11.3%, from 9.08tthm2 in 2001 to 10.11t/bin2 in 2015. In order to get higher yield in northern China, it is strongly recommended to maintain certain number of effective panicles, at the same time coordinating the relationship among grain numbers per panicle, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight. On the whole, grain quality in northem China was good, with the high quality variety rate more than 60%. Rice quality of early maturity mid-early japonica and medium maturity mid- early japonica were relatively better than that of Huang-huai japonica and late maturity mid-early japonica. The head rice rate and amylose content were relatively ideal, while chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree were the main factors that affected the rice quality in norther China. Each year rice varieties with mid-resistance to rice blast accounted for 37%, while another 40% of rice varieties were eliminated due to susceptible to rice blast. Moreover, the rate of resistant varieties was unstable annually. It was important to make more efforts to enhance the rice blast resistance in northern China
作者 王洁 曾波 雷财林 赵志超 王久林 程治军 Wang Jie1, Zeng BO2, Lei Cailin1, Zhao Zhichao1, Wang Jiulin1, Cheng Zhijun1(1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Beijing 100081, China; 2National Agricultural Technology Extension and Service Center, Beijing 100125, China)
出处 《作物杂志》 北大核心 2018年第1期71-76,共6页 Crops
基金 农业部国家水稻区试项目(2001-2015)
关键词 水稻育种 稻瘟病 稻米品质 区域试验 产量构成因素 Rice breeding Rice blast Grain quality Regional trail Yield component
作者简介 王洁,副研究员,研究方向为水稻遗传育种及水稻区试
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