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汉语双字词常模特征跨词性对比研究

A Normative Study of Nouns,Verbs,and Adjectives in Simplified Chinese
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摘要 汉语中不同词性词有不同的常模特征规律。名词的具体性、意象性、语义透明度最高,但笔画数最少;动词的词频最高、习得年龄最晚,但感官经验度最低;形容词的熟悉性、主观词频和情感经验度最高,但具体性最低。同时,具体性、意象性和感官经验度之间的相互关联只存在于名词和形容词中。13个常模特征可以归为频率、语义、视觉复杂性和词义数四个公共因子,但各因子所主要代表的变量情况在不同词性词之间有相似之处,亦有不同之处。另外,动词和形容词之间的相似性高于它们分别与名词之间的相似性程度,习得年龄、情感经验度、意象性和主观词义数最能把名词与另外两种词性区分开来。 Aiming to compare the normative features of two-character(2C)words of different categories in simplified Chinese,we collected scores on 13features(frequency,number of strokes,number of meanings,subjective frequency,subjective number of meanings,AoA,compositionality,semantic transparency,familiarity,concreteness,imageability,emotional experience rating,and sensory experience rating)for 1,717 nouns,1,114 verbs,and 459 adjectives.Statistical analyses revealed both similarities and differences among the three categories of 2Cwords in normative characteristics.One-way ANOVA showed that 2C nouns had the highest scores in concreteness,imageability and semantic transparency,but the lowest score in number of strokes;2C verbs were the most frequently used,the latest to be acquired,but the least to arouse people’s sensory experiences;2C adjectives were rated to be the most familiar,the most commonly encountered in daily life,the most to evoke people’s emotional experiences,but the least concrete.Pearson correlations analyses indicated that subjective frequency enjoyed positive correlations with frequency and familiarity,but had a negative correlation with AoA. Significant correlations between concreteness,imageability and sensory experience rating were only found for nouns and adjectives,but not for verbs.Factor analyses suggested that the 13 variables for Chinese 2C words could be elegantly compressed into four common factors:Frequency,Semantics,Visual Complexity and Meaningfulness.Frequency,Semantics,Visual Complexity and Meaningfulness explained 18.91%,18.65%,9.48%,and 8.68%of features variance for the 2C nouns,18.69%,15.58%,9.09%,and 9.82%for the2C verbs,and 17.79%,17.10%,9.12%,and 10.04%for the 2C adjectives.Compositionality tended to reflect the visual complexity dimension for the 2C words in general.However,AoA was loaded onto Frequency for the verbs and for the adjectives,but onto Semantics for the nouns.Emotional experience rating clustered with frequency,subjective frequency,and familiarity for the nouns,but c
作者 宋丹贵 李德高 Song Dangui;Li Degao(School of International Studies,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310058,China;School of Translation Studies,Qufu Normal University,Rizhao 276826,China)
出处 《浙江大学学报:人文社会科学版》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第1期120-128,共9页 Journal of Zhejiang University(Humanities and Social Sciences)
基金 国家社科基金项目(17BYY016).
关键词 现代汉语 双字词 常模特征 词性 比较研究 modern Chinese two-character words normative features syntactic categories comparative study
作者简介 宋丹贵(https://orcid.org/0000—0002—9583—0546),女,浙江大学外国语言文化与国际交流学院博士研究生,主要从事心理语言学研究;李德高(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9511-3109),男,曲阜师范大学翻译学院教授,博士生导师,心理学博士,主要从事心理语言学研究。
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