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优化栽培措施对三峡糯一号主要生理指标和产量的影响 预览

Effects of Optimized Cultivation Measures on Physiological Index and Yield of Sanxia Glutinous-1 Rice
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摘要 【目的】探明早熟糯稻新品种三峡糯一号的配套栽培技术及高产机理。【方法】应用三因素二次正交回归旋转组合设计,建立了栽插密度、施氮量、移栽叶龄与三峡糯一号根系活力、剑叶光合速率、基部叶片叶绿素含量、基部叶片POD酶活性等主要生理指标的数学模型,并通过模拟寻优出优化栽培措施方案。【结果】施氮量是影响三峡糯一号生理指标的主要因素,增大施氮量(137.55~172.50 kg/hm2)可提高水稻根系活力,基部叶片叶绿素含量增加,剑叶光合速率高,但施氮量少(34.96~86.25 kg/hm2)能促进POD酶活性,过大的施氮量(超过137.55 kg/hm2)又会抑制POD酶活性;低密度(15.00~18.75万穴/hm2)可促进水稻根系活力的增加、剑叶光合速率高、加速光合物的转化,而高密度(28.13~37.50万穴/hm2)抑制水稻根系活力的增加、剑叶光合速率低、光合物转化减慢、不利于产量的形成;小苗秧(3.0~5.0叶)叶片叶绿素合成速度快,大苗秧(7.0~8.5叶)叶片叶绿素合成速度减慢;栽插密度和施氮量在低水平(-1.682~0)水平区间,其增产效果非常明显,原因在于二者对POD酶活性、根系活力的促进及加速光合物转化。【结论】三峡糯一号高产组合方案为:栽插密度22.53~24.45万穴/hm2、施氮量131.23~136.11 kg/hm2、栽插叶龄为5.07~6.17叶。在这样的栽培措施下,三峡糯一号有95%的把握可达到根系活力大于27.31μg/(gFW·h)、剑叶光合速率大于3.43 CO2 mg/(dm2·h)、基部叶片叶绿素高于23.88 mg/g、基部叶片POD酶含量高于23.88 POD470/(g·min)的高产生理指标和产量在8362.87 kg/hm2以上。 Obj ective Our aim of the study was to explore the cultivation techniques of the new early-ripening rice of Sanxia glutinous-1 and to suggest mechanisms of high yield.[Method]A three factors (transplanting density,nitrogen addition and leaf age)and two orthogonal regres-sion rotation combination design was used in this study.Some physiological index,root vigor, photosynthetic rate of sword leaves and chlorophyll content and POD activity of basal was esti-mated.The optimization cultivation measures were obtained based on mathematical simulation.[Results]Nitrogen was the key factor affecting physiological index of Sanxia glutinous-1.Nitro-gen application rate from 137. 55 to 172. 50 kg/hm2 improved root activity,chlorophyll content of basal leaves and photosynthetic rate flag leaf.But nitrogen applidtion rates between 34. 96 and 86. 25 kg/hm2 promoted POD activity.More than 137. 55 kg/hm2 nitrogen inhibited POD activity.Low density (150 000-187 500 point/hm2 )increased root activity,flag leaf photosynthetic rate and transformation of photosynthetic matter.However,high density (281 300-375 000 point/hm2 )decreased root activity,flag leaf photosynthetic rate,transformation of photosynthetic matterand yield formation.Leaf chlorophyll synthesis was fast in small seedlings with 3.0-5.0 leavesbut the opposite was true for big seedlings with 7.0-8.5 leaves.when planting density and nitrogenapplication rate were at a low interval (-1.6 82 -0 ),effects of increasing yield was veryobvious.This was mainly because they together promote root activity,POD activity and photosyntheticconversion.[Conclusion]The schemes of high yield in Sanxia glutinous-1 were shownas followed:Planting density 22 5 300 -244 500 point/hm2 ,nitrogen application 1 3 1.2 3 -1 3 6.1 1kg/hm2 and leaf age of 5.07 - 6.1 7 .Under the cultivation measures,9 5 % confidence could bereached in the following parameters:Root activity 〉2 7.3 1 μg/(gFW·h),photosynthetic rate offlag leaf 〉3.43 CO2 mg/(dm2 ·h),chlorophyll of basal le
作者 谢必武 张凤龙 张甲 晏承兴 张世平 XIE Bi-wu, ZHANG Feng-long, ZHANG Jia, YAN Cheng-xing, ZHANG Shi-ping (1. Chongqing Three Gorges Polytechnic College; 2. Chongqing Three Gorges Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanzhou 404155, Chongqing, China)
出处 《四川农业大学学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2014年第2期126-133,共8页 Journal of Sichuan Agricultural University
基金 重庆高等职业技术院校应用技术推广中心项目:高产优质抗逆糯稻新品种三峡糯一号中试与示范(项目编号:TG1310002).
关键词 三峡糯一号 生理指标 密度 施氮量 叶龄 优化措施 Sanxia nuo 1 physiological index density nitrogen application rate leaf age the optimization measures
作者简介 谢必武,教授,主要从事作物栽培研究,E-mail:cqxiebw@163.com。
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