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南京市2001-2008年水土流失的时空变化与治理成效研究 预览 被引量:10

TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION OF SOIL AND WATER LOSS AND ITS CONTROL IN NANJING AREA FROM 2001 TO 2008
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摘要 利用2001~2008年气象资料和地理信息系统数据库,采用“监测水土流失的定量新方法”对南京全市各区县和小流域8年期间水土流失状况进行了定量监测和分析。结果表明:(1)8年期间南京全市平均轻度以上(包括轻度)水土流失面积为858.5km^2,平均轻度以上水土流失总量为206.4×10^4t,全市水土流失主要发生在丘陵山区;(2)南京地区水土流失存在年内和年度变化特征,其侵蚀月份多数发生在4~8月,侵蚀最严重年度为2003年,最轻年度为2001年,最接近8年平均监测年度为2006年;(3)各区县、镇街和小流域8年平均水土流失状况存在差异,就土壤流失总量、轻度以上面积和强度以上面积而言,最严重的是江宁区,其次是六合区,最严重小流域是江宁区百家湖和上坝河小流域;(4)8年来南京全市水土流失控制成效显著,侵蚀模数由中度降为轻度,土壤流失总量、流失面积和急需治理面积均大幅减少;水土保持措施实施和植被覆盖面积增加,使南京全市生态环境状况有明显改善;(5)水土流失治理成效分析说明,植被覆盖率增加和水土保持措施对控制水土流失具有明显的作用。 Based on meteorological data and the data in the Geographic Information System (GIS) database of Nanjing area during the period from 2001 to 2008, soil and water losses in various districts, counties and small watersheds of Nanjing were quantitatively analyzed, with a new method for "quantitative monitoring of soil and water loss". Results show that : ( 1 ) during the period, the area of lands subjected to soil erosion light or over was averaged 858.5 km^2 , losing a total of 206.4 × 10^4 t of soil; and the soil erosion occurred mainly in hilly areas; (2) the soil erosion was characterized by annual and inter-annual variations; which show that soil erosion occurred mostly from Apr. to Aug. ; and it was the most serious in 2003, the least in 2001, and the closest to the average of the 8 years; (3) spatial variation of the average soil erosion existed among the districts, towns, and small watersheds; in terms of total amount of soil loss, and areas of lands subjected to light and serious soil erosion, Jiangning District ranked first and was followed by Liuhe District; and Baijia Lake and Shangba River were the most serious in soil erosion among the small watersheds; (4) the effect of the efforts of Nanjing to control soil and water loss was very significant; The erosion modulus declined from moderate to light, and the total amount of soll loss; the area of the lands subjected to soil loss and the area of the lands in urgent need for control areas all significantly decreased ; and the area of the lands where soil erosion control measures had been implemented and the area of the land covered by vegetation increased, thus significantly improving the eco-environment of Nanjing; (5) the analysis of the effect of the control of soil erosion indicated that the increase in vegetation coverage and the implementation soil erosion control measures are effective in controlling soil erosion.
作者 马力 卜兆宏 彭桂兰 夏立忠 李运东 杨林章 姜小三 黄睿 吴玉敏 Ma Li Bu Zhaohong Peng Guilan Xia Lizhong Li Yundong Yang Linzhang Jiang Xiaosan Huang Rui Wu Yumin ( 1 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China) (2 Nanjing Water Conservancy Bureau, Nanjing 210008, China) (3 College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China)
出处 《土壤学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2011年第4期683-692,共10页 Acta Pedologica Sinica
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(40171060)和中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目“重大工程生态环境效应监测与评估”(KZCX1-YW-08-01)资助
关键词 南京市 水土流失 定量监测 时空变化 治理成效 Nanjing Soil and water loss Quantitative monitor Temporal and spatial variation Control effects
作者简介 马力(1979-),男,汉族,博士,助理研究员,主要从事三峡库区生态环境保护和水土流失防治以及土壤生态系统养分循环与面源污染控制研究。E-mail:lma@issas.ac.cn 通讯作者,E-mail:zhbu@issas.ac.cn
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